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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Relatively selective disruption of the ability to process a particular kind of semantic information


memory loss

Anterograde Amnesia

Severe loss of the ability to form new episodic and semantic memories (anterograde = after)

Association Cortex

Cortex that are involved in associating information within and across modalities

Basal Forebrain

A collection of structures that lie at the base of the brain. Include nucleus basalis and medial sptal nuclei


highly detailed, false memories

consolidation period

A time window during which new memories are vulnerable and easily lost

cued recall

you are given some kind of a prompt or clue to the correct answer

declarative memory

Includes both episodic and semantic memory, easy to verbalize or communicate your knowledge

depth-of-process effect

deeper processing at encoding of new information improves the ability to remember that information later


Are near the core of the brain, just above the brainstem, that includes the thalamus, the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies

directed forgetting

when information is forgotten on command

elctroconvulsive shock

a brief pulse of electricity passed through the brain via electrodes on each side of the head

episodic memory

A memory for a specific autobiographical event

explicit memory

episodic and semantic information is consciously accessible or explicit (you know that you know)

false memory

memories of events that never actually happened


part of the basal forebrain and diencephalon connect with the hippocampus via an arch-like fiber bundle called the fornix.

free recall

simpled asked an open-ended question and you supply the answer from memory

frontal cortex

those regions of cortex that lie within the frontal lobes, may help determine what information we store (or remember) and what information we don't store (therefore forget)

Functional amnesia

sudden, massive retrograde memory loss that seems to result from psychological causes


part of the medial termporal lobe

implicit memory

memory that you may not be aware you've acquired


when two memories overlap in content, the strength of either or both memories may be reduced

korsakoff's disease

a condition caused by a deficiency in thiamine (a B-vitamin) that sometimes accompanies chronic alcohol abuse

medial temporal lobes

inner (or medial) surfaces of the temporal lobes


occurs when we remember information but mistakenly associate it with an incorrect source


techniques that make information easier to memorize

multiple memory trace theory

episodic memories are encoded by an ensemble of hippocampus and cortical networks, and the cortical networks never, in normal circumstances, become fully independent of the hippocampal networks

nondeclarative memory

memories that are not always easy to communicate, skill learning is one kind of nondeclarative memory

proactive interference

Process, whereby old information can disrupt new learning


picking a correct answer from a list of possible options

retroactive interference

process, whereby new information can disrupt old learning

retrograde amnesia

loss of memories for events that occurred after the injury

Ribot Gradient

retrograde memory loss is worse for events that occurred shortly before the injury than for events that occurred in the distant past.

semantic memory

memories of facts and general knowledge about the world, as well as for personal information such as your own name and favorite food

sensory cortex

Cortical areas that specialize in one kind of sensory information are often grouped under the heading as sensory cortex

source amnesia

when we remember information but cannot remember the source at all.

standard consolidation theory

holds that the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe structures are required for the initial storage and retrieval of an episodic memory but that their contribution diminishes over time until the cortex is capable of retrieving the memory without hippocampal help

transfer-appropriate processing effect

refers to the finding that retrieval is more likely to be successful if that cues available at recall are similar to those that were available at encoding

transient global amnesia

temporary disruption of memory