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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does Berk define as a "rapid appraisal of the personal significance of a situation"?
According to ____________ , emotions prepare us for action on matters of personal importance (energize behavior aimed at attaining personal goals.)
Do emotions relate to physical health?
Yes, stress is the most well known emotion, being detrimental to physical health.
Define Self-Conscious emotions
Emotions such as shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self.
What does emotional self-regulation refer to?
The strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals.
How do parents affect emotional self-regulation during early childhood?
Adult-Child conversations prepare children for difficult experiences and also foster emotional self-regulation.
what are examples of basic emotional self-regulation skills in middle childhood and beyond?
Specific examples are tolerating teasing, physical aggression without crying and being able to "lose" without being uncontrollably upset or angry.
What are the consequences of failing to learn basic emotional self-rugulational skills in middle-childhood
The children are vulnerable to peer rejection, bullies and victimizations
Define emotional self-efficacy
Lack of E.S.E is the feeling of not being able to control one's emotions.
What are the effects of lack of emotional self-efficacy?
Doubly threatened, they are threatened by the attacker and the fear of experiencing overwhelming emotions
Define emotional display rules.
When, where and how it is appropriate to express emotions.
What does social referencing refer to in terms of emotional reactions?
Relying on another person's emotional reaction to appraise an uncertain situation.
How is social referencing involved in emotional development during childhood?
Because children are highly attentive to parents reactions, and they can learn that other can feel differently than they do in any given situation.
What are two examples of emotional understanding that develop during middle childhood?
Developed around 3-4th grades, one example is interpreting a picture of a child smiling but standing in front of a broken bike.
Why is it important for parents to label their children's emotions and discuss them?
If parents discuss their emotions, the more "emotion words" children use and the better developed their emotional understanding becomes.
Define Empathy
The ability to detect different emotions, to take another's emotional perspective and "feel" with that person.
What is prosocial behavior?
Any behavior toward another person that is positive, or exhibits empathy.
How do parenting styles affect empathetic responses?
Parents can help regulate feelings, such as anger, and teach the importance of kindness. Angry parents disrupt empathy and sympathy.
Define temperament
early-appearing, stable individual differences in re activity and self-regulation.
Describe Easy (Temperament)
Generally cheerful and adapts easily to new experiences.
Describe Difficult (Temperament)
Slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely.
Define Slow-To-Warm-Up (Temperament)
Shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences.
Describe goodness-of-fit model of temperament.
Involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging.
Define Attachment
The strong, affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to experiences pleasure and joy when we interact with them. And comforted by their nearness in times of stress.
Describe secure attachment
When separated, may or may not cry. Prefer parent over stranger, and when parent returns, crying stops immediately.
What factors influence how stable or unstable the quality of attachment is over time?
SES factors into things. Better the family is, the better the quality of attachment.
Define Sensitive caregiving
Responding promptly, consistently and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully
Define interactional synchrony
where the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well-timed, rhythmic, appropriate fashion.
Define perspective taking
the capacity to imagine what others may be thinking and feeling and to distinguish those viewpoints from one's own.
Define recursive thought
A form of perspective taking in which the person can consider other people's perspectives as well as their own.
Define Self-Concept
The set of attributes, abilities, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
Define Self-Esteem
The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments.
Define attributions
Our common, everyday explanations for the causes of behavior, our answers to the question "Why did I or another person do that?"
How does "mastery-oriented" attributions differ from "learned helplessness"?
Mastery-oriented att. is crediting their successes to ability,

Learned Helplessness is credidting their failures to their ability
Define Identity
Constructing identity involves defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to pursue in life.
Describe 3 components of morality studied in psychology
Emotional, Cognitive and behavioral components
Define internalization
adopting societal standards for right action as one's own.
How does modeling fit into the process of moral development?
Observing and imitating adults who demonstrate appropriate behavior.
What are some effects of punishment?
Frequent punishment results in immediate compliance, will show inappropriate response once adult is out of site.
What personality style is associated with maturity of moral reasoning?
Open Minded
What kinds of child rearing practices are associated with large gains in moral maturity among children?
warmth, exchange of ideas and appropriate demands for maturity.
How does peer interaction promote more mature moral reasoning?
when peers negotiate and compromise they realize that social life can be based on cooperation between equals.
Define moral self-regualtion
the ability to monitor one's own conduct,.
Define reactive aggression
Angry, defensive response to a provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt
Define relational aggression
Damages another's relationship through social exclusion, gossip, or friendship manipulation.
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