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94 Cards in this Set

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What is Consciousness?

- Your awareness of everything that is going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment. (Including your thoughts, sensations, and feelings). Which you use to organize your behavior.

What is Waking consciousness?

When you feel alert and your thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized

What are Altered states of consciousness?

Forms of experience that depart from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind.

What are the 4 levels of consciousness?

1. Conscious level: one is aware of events and mental processes

2. Preconcious level: stuff hovering just below consciousness

3. Unconscious level: stuff deeply below conscious; May become or affect consciousness

4. Non-conscious level: stuff that never becomes conscious

What are Altered states of consciousness?

-experience that depart from normal subjective experience of the world and mind

What are the 6 Stages of sleep?

Awake: alert(beta waves) or relaxed (alpha waves)

1. Stage 1: drowsy; first true sleep stage (theta waves)

2. Stage 2: asleep (sleep spindles and k-complexes)

3. Stages 3: slow wave sleep (delta and theta waves)

4. Stage 4: slow wave sleep; groggy/ confused ( delta and theta waves; over 50% delta)

REM: rapid eye movement; resembles awake person

2 of the stages are not numbered.

What is Insomnia?

Can't fall or stay asleep- chronic if for than 2 weeks

A sleep disorder

What is Narcolepsy

Abrupt switch from waking to REM

A sleep disorder- can't control when fall asleep, dangerous can fall down in the middle of the street etc.

What is sleep apnea?

Breathing stops briefly during sleep

Sleep disorder; c pap machine

What is SIDS

Sudden instant death syndrome; sleeping infant stops breathing and dies

What is Sleepwalking?

Walking during non- REM sleep

What is REM behavior disorder

Normal REM paralysis absent, allowing the person to thrash around and act out nightmares

Night terrors VS Night mares

- Night terrors: Abrupt awakening with panic and intense emotional arousal

- Night mares: Frightening REM dreams

What is the Wish fulfillment theory (psychoanalitic):

Dreams are disguised form of wish fulfillment.

What is the Activation- synthesis theory (biological):

Dreams are meaningless and random firings that the brain tries to make sense of.

What is the Activation- information- mode model (cognitive):

Information and standard processes that are used during waking hours can influence your dreams.

Hypnosis is:

An altered state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to sugestion

What is a Psychoactive drug:

A chemical substance that alters thinking, perception, memory, or some combination of those abikuties

What is a Physical dependence of 💊

After using the drug for some period of time, the body becomes unable to function normally without the drug and the person is said to be physically dependent or addicted.

What is a Psychological dependence for 💊?

The belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well- being. The body may not need the drug they will continue to use it because they think they need it.

What are Depressants?

Reduce or depress nervous system activity


What are Stimulants?

Increase nervous system activity


What is Developmental psychology?

The study of how thoughts and behavior change and remain stable across the life span.

Nature VS. Nurture. Nature

Nature: heredity, the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

Nature vs Nurture; nurture

The influence from the environment

EX: anything that doesn't come within the person

When is the germinal stage, and what happens?

- 0-2

- zygote forms

When is the Embryonic stage, and what happens?

- 2-8 wks

- organs and body parts created

When is the Fetal stage, and what happens?

- 8 wks until birth

- starts to move, body parts are created

What are teratogens:

Eternal substances that cause birth defects

What are the 4 Newborn reflexes:

Grasping, stepping, rooting, and sucking

What is Prenatal programming?

Events in womb can alter later development

When is the sensorimotor stage?

0-2 years

What is object permanence?

Peek a boo- think things disappear.

When is the Preoperational period?

2-5 yrs: use and create symbols- ABCs 123's

What is egocentrism?

Everyone sees the world as child does.

What is animism?

Objects are alive. Like toys- toy story

When is the concrete operational period?

6-11 years

- able to reason and think with logic

It's logical thinking- water and cups

When is the Formal operational period?

12 and up.

-Think hypothetically, and foresee consiquenses

What are the 3 different temperaments of infants?

- Easy: happy, predictable

- Difficult: fussy, unpredictable

- Slow to warm up: approach warily, but eventually will

What is infant Imprinting?

Know parents voices

What are the 4 different Attachment styles?

- Secure: balance between contact and exploration

- Avoidant: ignore and avoid mom after seperation

- Resistant: greets mom but angrily rejects contact

- Disorganized/ disoriented: infants behavior is inconsistent

"Strange situation"

Def. Of memory:

The ability to store and use information; what we have learned and remmebered

What is Encoding:

Mental representations of physical stimuli

What is Maintenance rehearsal?

Shallow memorizing.

Ex: Saying something over and over.

What is Elaborative rehearsal?

Deep processing. Putting what you need to remember into personal life.

What is the 3 stage model of memory?

Classification of memories based on duration as sensory, short term, and long term.

What is Sensory memory:

Briefly retains info from senses

Stop feeing something itchy after a while. Shower go "cold".

What is encoding?

Information from 5 senses into sensory registers.

Stuff your brain has to encode

What is memory Storage:

Large capacity about 2 secs

Iconic memory: brief visual record of image on Retna (less than 1 sec)

Echoic memory: short term retention of sounds(2-4 secs)

What is retrieval?

If attended, sensory memory's are sent on, other wise they will fade quickly

Selective attention

What is short term memory?

Temporarily holds info in consciousness

What is working memory?

Manipulates information in short term memory

What is chunking?

Organizing information into meaningful groupings

What is Serial position effect?

Primacy effect first, decency effect- most recent

The word lists. Remembering the 1st and last words

What is long term memory?

Can retain information for long periods of time

Ex: riding a bike, reading, playing an instrument, driving etc.

What are the 2 types of long term memory?

-Explicit: intentionally trying to remember

- implicit: unintentional recognition and influence of prior experience

Recalling VS. Recognition

-Recalling: actually remmering.

- Recognition: looks familiar but don't know details

What are retrieval cues?

Stimuli that help us remembrance and recognize information

Ex: Smell reminds us of past

What is State dependence?

Memory can be aided or impeded by a person's internal state

What is Context dependence?

Memory can be helped or hindered by similaritys or differences between learning and recall environments

Chewing gum while studying will help on test. And studying where your going to take the test... It's false though. *Has not been scientifically proven

What is learning?

Enduring stages in behavior or understanding that occur with expirience

What is non-associative learning?

Impact of 1 stimulus

What is Orienting reasponse & sensitization?

Novel stimuli automatically attracts attention and causes an exagetated response

Start to hear a vacuume or the heater, or fridge.

What is Habituation?

Adapting attention to constant stimuli

Feeling your clothes. SPD would be lack of habituation

What is associative learning?

Process by which two peices of information from the environment are repeatedly linked so that we begin to connect them in our minds

What is classical conditioning?

Learning to elicit an involuntary, reflex-like, response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the response.

Pavlovs dogs

Components of classical conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

Original input that always elicits the unlearned response

Pavlov: the dogs food- OR: loud noise for little Albert

Components of classical conditioning: Unconditioned response (UCR)

An automatic and involuntary response

Pavlov: dog saliva when see food OR: crying for little Albert

Components of classical conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus (CS):

Previously neutral stimulus (NS) that now elicits the conditioned response

Pavlov: the bell used to be NS. OR: the rat for little Albert.

Components of classical conditioning: Conditioned Response (CR):

Learned response elicited by the conditioned stimulus

Pavlov: when the bell rings the dog saliva, means food is coming OR: rat =crying for little Albert.

What is Extinction?

Gradual disapearance of the CR

Part of classical conditioning- not getting stung for a long time makes fear of 🐝s leave

What is reconditioning?

Quick relearning of CR after extinction

Part of classical conditioning- getting stung after a long time reintroduces fear of 🐝

What is spontaneous recovery?

Reappearance of CR after extinction

Part of classical conditioning

What is stimulus generalization?

Stimuli similar enough to C'S to elicit CR

Part of classical conditioning

What is stimulus discrimination?

Stimuli different enough from CS so that it does not elicit CR

Part of classical Conditioning

What is law of effect?

The consequences of a behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of repeating that behavior

Dealing with behavior

What is Operant conditioning?

Learning consequences of behavior alters future behavior

Dealing with behavior- FB. People like posts, get on FB more often

In behavior, what is a Reinforcer?

Stimulus that increases behavior(strengthens response)

In behavior, what is a Positive Reinforcement?

Good thing added, future response more likely

What is the difference between Primary Reinforcers & Secondary Reinforcers?

- Primary Reinforcers: unlearned Reinforcers that satisfys biological needs

- Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers: reinforcers learned by assimilation

-Biological needs like water and food.

- conditioned, such as money, grades, approval

What is Negative Reinforcement?

-Removal of stimulus to increase behavior.

-Bad thing removed, future response more likely

Seatbelt beeper stops when you put in your seatbelt on

Positive VS Negative;

punishment & Reinforcement

In terms of reinforcement what does Continuous mean?

Every time a response occures

In terms of reinforcement what does Intermittent mean?

Reinforcement delivered some of the time

What is intermittent reinforcement

Types of reinforcement: What is a Fixed ratio? (FR)

After a fixed number of responses

Fixed = set, Ratio= number

- tell kids good job while cleaning room every 5 mins

Types of reinforcement: What is a variable ratio? (VR)

After a varying # of responses

Like fishing and gambling.

Types of reinforcement: What is Fixed Interval (FI)?

Pattern of intermittent reinforcement

Fixed= set, interval= time passed. Ex: Birthdays

Types of reinforcement: what is Variable Interval (VI)?

1st response after some variable of time

MLM. sometimes you get paid.

What is latent learning?

Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs.

What is social learning theory?

Learning by modeling and observational learning

What is modeling?

Imitation of behavior performed by others

Bobo doll

What is observational learning?

When people learn by watching others responses.

Knowing what is socially acceptable

What is vicarious learning?

Learns the cinsiquenses of an action by watching others

Younger sibling learns from the olders actions and consiquenses