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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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How thoughts, feelings and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others
Social Psychology
How we perceive our social world

How we attend to, store, remember, and use information about other people and the social world
Social Cognition
mental frameworks that organize or synthesize information about a person, place, or thing

Based on experiences or conceptions
Schema
Inferring or explaining the cause of behavior
Attribution
personality, mood, ability, effort
Internal Attribution
situational factors, others behavior, luck
External Attribution
When evaluating others’ behavior, we tend to either overestimate internal characteristics or underestimate external characteristics
Fundamental Attribution Error
we tend to attribute our own behavior external factors

we tend to attribute others’ behavior to internal factors
Actor-observer effect
Personal successes are attributed to internal factors

Personal failures are attributed to external factors
Self-Serving Bias
Welfare

Battered women
Blaming the victim
“People get what they deserve”
Just World Hypothesis
An overall evaluation about some aspect of the world

Goals and expectations

Personal experiences
attitudes
Loss of sense of self when people in a group become anonymous

“Mob mentality”
Deindividuation
enhancement of task performance because there are other people present
Social Facilitation
decreased effort put forth by individuals when working in a group
Social Loafing
a preconceived opinion or bias, especially a negative attitude or evaluation toward a group of people

defined by their racial, ethnic, or religious heritage or by their gender or occupation

may lead us to stereotype people or to discriminate against them
Prejudice
A belief that causes a person to act in a manner consistent with that belief

Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968

Teachers were told that some students would have a positive performance over the year based on test results

“Marked” students did better than their “unmarked” classmates
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
suggest that cognitive structures that are biased in favor of the in-group, and against out-groups, were selected for in the course of human evolution
Krebs and Denton Theory
tendency to make favorable attributions to members of our in-group
In-group bias
tendency to see members of the out-group as more similar to each other
Out-group homogeneity effect
Competition for scarce resources
Realistic conflict theory
Series of competitive interactions resulted in:

Within-group solidarity

Negative stereotyping of out-group

Hostile between-group interactions
Robber’s Cave Study
Overcoming the “we/they” effect:

Compliment each group in presence of others

Engage in common activities

Establish common goals - cooperate to solve a common problem
Robber’s Cave Study
The presence of a constellation of symptoms that create significant distress or impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living
Mental Disorder
characterized by tension, hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system, expectation of an impending disaster, and continuous vigilance for danger
Anxiety Disorders
An unrealistic, excessive fear of a specific class of stimuli that interferes with normal activities
phobia
Relaxation Training
Gradual Steps
Remaining relaxed during the steps

Example: Acrophobia
Stand on chair
Stand on ladder
Stand on balcony of 2nd floor
Observation deck of the Sears Tower
Systematic Desensitization
Prozac

Zoloft
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day

markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities

significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain

insomnia or hypersomnia nearly

psychomotor agitation or retardation

fatigue or loss of energy

feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt

diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness,

recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.
Major Depression
Benzodiazepines:

Xanax, Valium

Often for short periods
Anxiety Disorders
inflated self-esteem or grandiosity

decreased need for sleep

more talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking

flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing

distractibility

increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation

excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments)
mania
Disordered thoughts

Delusions

Hallucinations

Bizarre behaviors
Schizophrenia
recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (e.g., repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use; substance-related absences, suspensions or expulsions from school; neglect of children or household)
Drug Abuse
a. a need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or designed

b. effect markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance
Drug Addiction
What is the essential characteristics that need to be present in order for something to be considered a psychiatric disorder?
1. Distress
2. Disability
3. Danger
Sigmund Freud

Intrapsychic conflict

id, ego, and superego
Psychodynamic Perspective
caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system
Medical Perspective
Learned maladaptive behavior patterns

environmental factors
Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective
The cultures in which people live play a significant role in the development of mental disorders
Sociocultural Perspective
A person possesses a predisposition for a disorder

Also faces stressors that exceed his or her ability to cope with them
Diathesis Stress Model
Thought disorder
Disorganized, irrational thinking

Delusion
A belief that is clearly in contradiction to reality

Hallucination
Perception of a nonexistent object or event
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Absence of behaviors that are normally present

Social withdrawal

Lack of affect

Reduced motivation
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Data based scientific study of behavior

Conclusions about behavior are derived from scientific evidence

Practical applications of psychology have been derived from and tested by scientific methods
psychology
What events happen in the brain when people play games?
Physiological Psychology
What events happen that increase/decrease the likelihood that people will play games?
Behavior Analysis
What types of strategies do people use when playing games?
Cognitive Psychology
How does play change across the lifespan?
Developmental Psychology
What kinds of cues affect the types of games that people will play with each other?
Social Psychology
an idea that is arrived at logically from a theory. It is a prediction that can be tested
hypothesis
Studies the relationship between two variables

Useful in directing future research
correlational research
a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more variables believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other variables are held constant
experiment
the manipulated experimental factor in an experiment
independent variable
A factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable
dependent variable
Groups in which the independent variable is manipulated
Experimental groups
Comparison group that is exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the independent variable
Control group
Definitions of the variables in terms of operations a researcher performs in order to measure them
Operational definitions
the tendency to give the same response to similar stimuli
generalization
what are the results?
descriptive statistics
Distinguishing Chance from Significance
Inferential Statistics
statistical indication that results are not likely to have occurred by chance
Statistical significance
Comparison:
Different conditions rule out certain explanations and confirm others

Control:
Attempt to weed out maximum number of alternative explanations

Manipulation:
Restructure the world in ways that will differentiate alternative hypotheses
Experimental Research
Cells that compose the CNS

Soma, axon, dendrites
neuron
chemicals that carry information across the synaptic gap from one neuron to the next
neurotransmitters
the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
involved in planning strategies for action, evaluating them, and changing them if necessary
frontal lobe
area of the cerebral cortex at the top of the head that is involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
parietal lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex just above the ears that is involved in hearing, language processing, and memory
temporal lobe
the part of the cerebral cortex at the back of the head that is involved in vision
occipital lobe
loosely connected network of structures - including the amygdala and hippocampus - that play important roles in memory and emotion
limbic system
Contains the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain.
Brain stem
The awareness of properties of an object that occurs when a receptor is stimulated
Sensation
Organizing and interpreting sensory input as signaling a particular object or event
Perception
Relationship between physical events and psychological experience

Threshold
Absolute Threshold

Just-noticeable difference
Difference Threshold
Psychophysics
A set of characteristics that corresponds to an object
Figure
The background that needs to be distinguished in order to pick out figures
Ground
Perception is recognizing objects according to the organization of their elements

The whole is different from the sum of its parts
Gestalt Psychology
Processing that begins with sensory receptors registering environmental information and sending it to the brain for analysis and interpretation
bottom-up processing
Processing of perceptual information that starts out with cognitive processing at the higher levels of the brain
top-down processing
when individuals see a disconnected or incomplete figure, they fill in the spaces and see it as a complete figure
principle of closure
when individuals see objects close to each other, they tend to group them together
principle of proximity
when objects are similar, individuals tend to group them together
principle of similarity
Long-term change in behavior that results from experience
learning
Automatically-elicited (reflexive) behaviors
classical conditioning
Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself
neutral stimulus
Always elicits a reflex action
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
A naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The stimulus that was originally “neutral” becomes conditioned after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus

Will eventually elicit the unconditioned response by itself
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR)
The process by which behavior becomes associated with consequences
Operant Conditioning
The occurrence of a stimulus following a response that INCREASES the likelihood of the response being repeated
Reinforcment
Following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior
positive reinforcement
following a behavior with the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior
negative reinforcement
Presentation of a stimulus following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
punishment
a behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus
positive punishment
a behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed from it
negative punishment
Function – registers environmental information in “snapshots”

Types:
iconic - visual
echoic – auditory

Duration - brief
1/2 sec for visual info
2 sec for auditory info
sensory memory
Function - conscious processing of information (not a place, a process!)

Limited capacity and duration
Short-Term Memory
a relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time
long-term memory
the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated
explicit memory
Nondeclarative memory

Influences your thoughts or behavior, but does not enter consciousness
implicit Memory
Not tied to personal events
General facts & definitions

Examples:
How many tires on a car?
What color is a banana?
Semantic Memory
Memory tied to personal experiences

Examples:
What month is your birthday?
Do you like to eat caramel apples?
Episodic Memory
Can’t recall old memories
retrograde amnesia
Can’t form new memories
anterograde amnesia
Categories defined by a list of essential characteristics

Dictionary definition
formal concept
Categories based on perceptions and interactions in the real world

Exemplars
natural concept
A procedure consisting of a series of steps that will solve a specific type of problem
Algorithm
A general rule (a rule of thumb) that guides decision making or problem solving

Means-ends analysis
Heuristic
when you infer specific instances from a general principle or rule

John is taller than Phil.
Sue is shorter than Phil.
Therefore, John is taller than Sue.
Deductive Reasoning
Uses specific examples to figure out a general rule

Specific proposition:
This ice is cold.

General Propositions:
All ice is cold.
There is no ice on the sun.
Inductive Reasoning
Narrow window of time when certain types of learning are possible
critical period
Window of time when a particular type of language is easiest but not the only time it can occur
Sensitive Period
Age:
0–2 years

Object permanence

Imitation
Symbolic play begins
Sensorimotor Period
Age:
2–7 years

Development of symbolic play

Egocentrism

Can mentally represent info but not mentally operate on info
Preoperational Period
Age:
7–11 years

Major achievements:
Classifying objects
Logic tied to physical world
Basic reversibility
Conservation
Concrete Operations Period
Age:
11 years (at the earliest)

Major achievements:
Abstract concepts
Logic
Reversibility
Hypothetical thinking
Formal Operations Period
The culture in which we are raised significantly affects our cognitive development.
Vygotsky’s Theory
Culture and environment also influence development
Piaget's Theory
The requirements and desires that lead animals (including humans) to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place
Motivation
A relatively brief display of a feeling made in response to environmental events having motivational significance or to memories of such events
emotion
You feel emotions after your body reacts.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
The event causes both arousal and emotion.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Your arousal and the context
combine to form emotions.
Cognitive Theory of Emotion
Pattern of behavior and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another
personality
an enduring personal characteristic that underlies a person’s reactions to a variety of situations
trait
All people have the same traits just to different degrees

Some theorists believe that traits are the cause of behaviors whereas others believe they are just labels for how we behave
trait theory
personality was a result of events in a person’s life, including traumatic ones

mind actively prevents unconscious traumatic events from reaching consciousness
psychoanalytic approach
irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality
id
rational, planful, mediating dimension of personality
ego
moralistic, judgemental, perfectionist dimension of personality
superego
personality development involves passing through several psychosexual stages of development early in life
Freud's theory of personality
Mouth

Fixation = oral activities in adulthood
Oral Stage (birth – 1 year)
Anus

Fixation - anal retentive; anal expulsive behaviors
Anal Stage (1 – 3 years)
Genitals

Oedipus or Electra complex

Fixation:
Males = excessive masculinity
Females = need for attention/domination
Phallic Stage (3 – 5 years)