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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
4 psychology's goals
1. predict: When it will happen
2. description: what happened
3. explanation: why it's happening
4. control: how can it be fixed
psychodynamic
*unconscious mind and it's influences of the conscious behavior
*early childhood experiences
behavioral
*explains how voluntary behavior is learned
EX: child crying is rewarded by mothers attention. Being awarded the child will cry again in the future
humanistic
*focuses on peoples ability to direct their own lives
*freedom to choose their own destiny
*achievement of one's full potential
cognitive
focuses on how people think, remember, store and use info
sociocultural
*study of groups social roles/rules
*cultural norms, values, expectations
bio-psychological
*biological bases of behavior/mental process
*hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, etc.
psychologists
*no medical training
*must be licensed to practice within their state
psychiatrist
*has medical degree
*specialized to diagnose/can prescribe medication
Scientific Method Steps
1. form a question
2. state a hypothesis
3. test the hypothesis
4. draw conclusions
5. report results
observer effect
animals/people who know they are watched will not behave normally
case study
*1 individual is studied in great detail
*advantage: the mass amount of detail it provides, good to study things that are rare
correlation
measure of the relationship between 2 or more variables
correlation coefficient
*direction/strength of a relationship

(+) = 2 variables move in same direction
*1 goes up the other goes up

(-) = 2 variables have an inverse relationship
*as one goes up, the other goes down

*The # will always range between +1.00 and -1.00. The closer the # is to 0 the weaker the relationships become.
independent variable
variable that is manipulated
dependent variable
response to the manipulation to the independent variable
experimental group
exposed to the I.V. b/c the group receives the experimental manipulation
control group
gets either no treatment/some kind of treatment with no effect
placebo effect
expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behaviors
experimenter effect
expectations of the experimenter can influence the behavior
Occipital Lobe
*visual center
*helps identify/make sense of the visual info.
Parietal Lobe
*processes info. from the skin/internal body receptors for touch, temp, and body positions
Temporal Lobe
*sense of hearing/meaningful speech
Frontal Lobe
*controls emotions
*fluent speech
*higher mental processes and decisions making
neuron
*basic cell
*makes up the nervous system
*receives/sends messages
glial cells
*provides support for neurons
*delivers nutrients to neurons
*influence generation of new neurons
synapse
fluid filled space
soma
cell body
hyperpolarization
change in a cells membrane potential that makes it more (-)
*opposite of depolarization
myelin sheath
*insulation of a cell
*speeds up neural messages within a cell
all-or-nothing law
either you have action potential or you dont
communication between neurons
Chemicals in the end of one neuron float across the gap to fit into holes on the next neuron
synaptic vesicles
storage sacs containing neurotransmitters
neurotransmitter
*specific shapes
*when NT binds to receptor, ions enter
agonist
*mimic neurotransmitter
EX: morphine: releases endorphins
antagonist
*block receptors
*NT naturally activate receptors
nervous system
broken down into 2 parts:
1. central nervous system
2. peripheral nervous system
central nervous system
made up of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
1. autonomic (regulation of internal organs: digestion, blood vessels, blood pressure)
2. somatic (controls mov't of skeletal muscles)
hypothalamus
*regulates the amount of fear, thirst, sex drive, and aggressions, body temp, reward, hormone selection
what is the hindbrain made up of?
1. medulla
2. pons
3. reticular formation
4. cerebellum
medulla
*where nerves cross from 1 side of the body to the opposite side
*controls heartbeat, breathing, swallowing
pons
*motor nerves carrying msgs from brain to body
*influence sleep, dreaming, and arousal
reticular formation
*allows people to ignore constant unchanging info, and become alert to changes
*if destroyed may result in an irreversible coma
cerebellum
controls all involuntary, rapid, fine mov't
limic system
*part of the lower-level structure
*involved in emotions, motivation, and learning
midbrain
involved in processing visual and auditory info
thalamus
*forebrain
*relays info from sensory organs to the cerebral cortex
amygdala & where is it located?
*responsible for fear responses and memory of fear
*people can respond to danger very quickly, before they are consciously aware
*identify emotions from facial expressions
*heart rate, adrenaline releases
*temporal lobe
hippocampus
*"seahorse"
*temporal lobe
*long term memory/storage of memory for location of objects
*forming new memories
higher-level structure
1. corpus callosum
2. cerebral cortex
corpus callosum
thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres
cerebral cortex
*important role in emotional/cognitive processing
fMRI
*analyze blood flow/oxygen levels
*activity measured over seconds rather than minutes
PET
*tracks radioactive compound (glucose)
*collects color coded info over several mins
sensation
occurs when special receptors in sense organs are activated
transduction
an energy form, change it into an internal code
perception
*sensations are experienced by any given time
*you interpret, organize the info in an meaningful way
sensory threshold
smallest possible difference
webers law
*sensation is relative
EX: lifting weights 10 to 15 lbs
absolute threshold
*minimal amount of stimulus to be detected
EX: hearing a watch tick 20 ft. away
mere exposure effect
*being exposed to something repeatedly then begin to like it
EX: certain songs being played on the radio
sensory habituation
*brain not paying attention to constant stimulation
EX: at a party. paying attention to convo right in front of you, someone says your name might be able to respond
sensory adaption
EX: cold temp of a lake when swimming
*doesn't feel cold after being exposed to it for awhile
selection attention
EX: talking on the phone while driving
*switching back and forth
*laps: missing exits or parts of the convo.
endocrine gland
secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream