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125 Cards in this Set

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1. it may be partly because we see something of ourselves in the abnormal (ie: we all get depressed, anxious, withdrawn, antisocial)
2. it may be because many of us have felt bewildered and have felt the pain of a psychological disorder personally or through family and friends.
Why are people fascinated by abnormality as it relates to psychological disorders?
A difference in the degree to which a behavior or thinking resembles an agreed upon criteria (varies with culture and times; also based on statistics)
ie: feeling sad (degrees of sadness) vs hallucinating (not normal/norm violation)
Exception: Olympic athletes, Michael Phelps is not normal but accepted by society
norm violation
abnormality as it relates to psychological disorders involves _____ and _____
behavior and thinking
1. considered atypical
2. considered disturbing to others
3. unjustifiable—not a normal reaction (ie: laughing at a funeral)
4. maladaptive—harmful to person or others
4 criteria to be psychological disorder
-study of mental disorders
-falls under clinical psychology
-pycho=mind
-pathology=study of disease
-refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment
psychopathology
Primitive cultures: demonic possession (evil spirits)
Greeks 400 BC: disease; natural cause coming from imbalance in body fluids
Middle Ages 5-16th century AD: spiritual context (witches and devils); disturbed people were killed or put into asylums which were like prisons
1793-a critical turning point, Phillippe Pinel
Views of "madness" through history
Reformed French hospital system, stated that madness was a sickness in response to severe stress and inhumane conditions
Phillippe Pinel
1. medical model
2. psychological model
Current Theoretical Models on mental disorders
mental disorders are diseases that have objective physical causes and require specific treatments
medical model
mental disorders are attributed to interaction of three factors:
1. biological
2. psychological
3. sociocultural
psychological model
anatomy and chemistry of the brain and other physiological processes
biological factors in psychological model
unconscious conflicts, maladaptive ways of viewing the world and learning
psychological factors in psychological model
abnormality viewed differently around the world
sociocultural factors in psychological model
1. traditional breakdown
2. today
classifying mental disorders
1. neurosis
2. psychosis (severe)
traditional breakdown
symptoms related to ineffective attempts to deal with reality (try to reduce anxiety, ie: obsessive individual)
neurosis
general category for a number of severe mental disorders in which perception, thinking and emotion are impaired
psychosis
DSM 4R-1994: big book, classifies but does not attribute cause
-guide for all mental health workers
-helps in describing, treating and researching the causes of the disorder
-assumes medical model
-lists 230 psychological disorders and conditions which are put into 17 categories
-neurosis does not appear in the book
classifying mental disorders today
National Institute of Mental Health 2006 national survey
-mental disorders of all types are common in the U.S.
-estimated 26.2% of Americans 18 and up (1 in 4 adults) suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in any given year
-for 2006 this would equal 57.7 million adults
statistics concerning mental disorders
1. phobias 14.3%
2. alcohol dependence 13.8%
3. mood disorder (includes depression) 7.8%
most common mental disorders in both men and women
-men are higher on alcohol dependence but women are higher on phobias and mood disorders.
-mental disorders don't affect men and women the same way
gender differences in mental disorders
1. abnormality-based on socio-cultural context
2. maladaptiveness-seriously disrupts social, academic, or vocational life
3. personal distress-our subjective feeling of anxiety, depression or other unpleasant emotion
3 criteria to determine when something is pathological
lack of control-distress and dysfunction are indicators of a lack of control
basic issue in psychopathology
1. direct observations of behavior
2. interviews-discussions with client and their significant others
3. psychological testing-symptom checklist; a list of assorted symptoms associated with a variety of disorders, client indicates which symptoms they possess
3 methods of assessing mental illness
contains:
-definition of disorder
-contains specific and explicit criteria for meeting diagnosis
-course and prevalence of disorder
-differential diagnosis of other possible disorders
DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition
To assess mental illness you should use both ____ and ___
clinical judgement and assessment tools; Training is necessary, diagnosis are DIFFICULT.
Clinicians must:
1. Achieve accuracy: hits, true negatives
2. Avoid errors: misses, false positives
correct diagnosis
hits
correct rejections
true negative
failure to detect a disorder OR diagnosed with wrong illness
misses
aka false alarms; diagnosing a healthy person
false positive
consequences of being wrong in diagnosing a mental illness (4)
1. stigma
2. cost of treatment
3. cost to society/individual
4. worse case scenarios
It is or is not ok to just use a symptom checklist?
NOT OK, you need more information
1. Personality disorder: includes narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder
2. Anxiety disorder: includes phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive, panic disorder and post traumatic stress disorder
3. Somatoform (body) disorders: includes hypochondriac, conversion disorder
4. Affective (mood) disorders: includes depression, manic disorder
5. Psychotic disorders: includes schizophrenia
6. Eating disorders: includes anorexia & bulimia
Some types of mental disorders:
longstanding, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of perceiving, thinking or behaving; includes narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder
personality disorder
-need for constant attention, respond inappropriately to criticism, grandiose sense of self importance
narcissistic personality disorder
person does not grow out of view that he/she is center of the world
why narcissistic personality disorder?
-(formerly called sociopath or psychopath)
-typically male
-violates the rights of others-violent, criminal, unethical, exploitative; example: Hannibal Lector
antisocial personality disorder
emotional deprivation in early childhood
learned from parents
arrested moral development
brain abnormalities
heredity
why antisocial personality disorder?
-(originally grouped under "neurosis")
-primary symptoms: anxiety (inappropriate to circumstances) or defenses that ward off anxiety
-includes phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive, panic disorder and post traumatic stress disorder
Anxiety disorder
intense and irrational fear (no real danger or exaggerated danger) of some object or situation; focused and specific
-examples:
claustrophobia-fear of closed places
agoraphobia-fear of open places
Saturday Night Live video clip of phobias
phobias
-not focused like a phobia (free floating)
-continually tense and uneasy
generalized anxiety disorder
-trying to deal with persistent thoughts that last a long time
-examples:
Friends clip with Monica
excessive handwashing, showering, cleanliness, avoid contact with contaminants
obsessive compulsive
-short term, each attack lasts a short time
-sudden unpredictable feeling of intense fear or terror
panic disorder
-anxiety long after event occurs
-examples: Vietnam war, rape/assault, car accident
post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Psychoanalytic views:
-unconscious conflicts (ie: fear of parents)
-behavior that once helped to control anxiety (ie: washing hands) becomes a problem itself
Behavioral view:
-associate anxiety and harmful situation
Biological view:
-inherited
Observational learning view:
-observe someone else who is anxious in a particular situation and then you become anxious in the same situation
why anxiety disorders?
-physical complaint suggests a physical disorder but no organic problem is found
-includes hypochondriac, conversion disorder
Somatoform (body) disorders
-preoccupied with body sensations, despite assurance that there is no problem
-interpret small symptom as sign of serious illness
hypochondriac
loss of specific sensory or motor function (ie: hysterical blindness)
conversion disorder
-disturbances in mood in which the person is either excessively depressed (loss of interest or pleasure) or elated (manic) or both (bipolar/mood swings)
-includes depression, manic disorder
Affective (mood) disorders
symptoms:
think of oneself as a failure
"paralysis of will"-lack of motivation
loss of appetite for food and sex
don't sleep well
general state of weakness and fatigue
2 or more weeks of feeling sad
depression
some forms of depression implicated in 40-60% of suicides
suicide and depression
symptoms:
elated and very active emotional state
impulsive
unrealistic optimism
high energy
severe agitation
manic disorder
Psychoanalytic view:
-real or imagined loss of loved one turns anger against oneself (depression)
Behavioral view:
-lack of reinforcement (depression)
Cognitive view:
-negative and self blaming thoughts (depression)
Biological view:
-heredity
-neurotransmitters
why affective disorders?
-includes schizophrenia (split mind), out of touch with reality
-prevalent 2% of population will have episode during lifetime
-about half of country's mental health hospital beds are occupied by schizophrenics
Psychotic disorders
pervasive thought disturbance
fluid thinking
difficulty with selective attention
withdrawal from social contact
delusions (misinterpret real events)
-paranoid: belief that some person or group is posing a serious threat when there is none
hallucinations (no actual stimulus)
sometimes bizarre behavior (ie: catatonic, odd gestures)
more sensitive to sensory stimuli
symptoms of schizophrenia
Annick; this came on quickly at age 15, she was in a tree howling at a party; on drugs to control symptoms, multiple consciousnesses, split from reality
Example of schizophrenia
Cognitive view:
inability to keep things in proper focus
Biological view:
a) viral infection during pregnancy might impair development of fetal brain
b) heredity
c) neurotransmitters--too much dopamine being transmitted
why schizophrenia?
depriving oneself of food or preventing food from being digested
most affected are females
includes anorexia and bulimia
eating disorder
fanatical dieting (self-starvation)
intense interest in food, but eating viewed with disgust
not aware that dieting behavior is abnormal
menstruation often affected
1% of all adolescents; 95% of those are female
anorexia nervosa
binge on high calorie food in a short period of time and then purge
secretive behavior
aware that behavior is abnormal
bulimia nervosa
environmental view:
at a time when young women are coming to grips with their changing bodies and sexuality, society bombards them with ads for rich foods and ads espousing a slim body
why anorexia/bulimia?
1. diagnosis-label for your disorder
2. etiology-determine cause
3. prognosis-estimate course of problem with and without treatment
4. treatment--specific to you
4 general steps of treatment of psychopathology
2 types of treatment of psychopathology
1. biomedical treatment
2. psychotherapy
deals with the body, often by changing the brain's functioning
-typically psychiatrists
biomedical treatment
bloodletting, dunking in water, and trephining (holes in skull)
biomedical treatment in the past included?
3 types of biomedical treatment today
1. drug therapy
2. psychosurgery
3. electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)
a. anti-psychotics-chlorpromazine (ie: thorazine) blocks dopamine which has been implicated as a possible cause of schizophrenia
b. tranquilizers-calm and relax (ie: valium and librium)
c. antidepressants-increase noreprinephrene and serotonin (ie: prozac)
d. lithium-bipolar disorder
drug therapy
-side effects-dry mouth, blurred vision
-regulating dosage
-drug dependence
-interaction of drugs
-not necessarily a cure
problems with drug therapy
ie: prefrontal lobotomy
-cut the connection between the thalamus and frontal lobes
-thought to disconnect the person from emotions and past trauma, but brain damage including loss of memory, emotion and personality
-only used in most extreme cases (ie: when nothing else works-intractable psychosis)
psychosurgery
-originally used with schizophrenics, then used with severely depressed individuals
-now used only if drugs are ineffective or person is suicidal
-electrical current put through brain at each side of forehead; leads to loss of consciousness, followed by a convulsive seizure (drugs are given to minimize muscle contractions)
-not clear how it works but may increase norepinephrine which elevates arousal and mood
electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)
60 minutes video; remember it involves more than one treatment, may be up to 6-16 shocks
example of ECT
use of psychological methods to help people modify their behavior so they can more satisfactorily adjust to their environment
psychotherapy
emotional re-education
interpersonal learning
having person achieve greater self-knowledge
psychotherapy involves
-problems stem from unconscious defenses pitted against unacceptable urges dating back to childhood
-person must achieve access to his buried thoughts and wishes, gain insight and resolve them (intrapsychic harmony)
-victory of reason over passion
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic (Freudian therapy)
-therapist sits behind patient, remaining neutral and mostly silent
1. free association-talk
2. interpreting dreams
3. transference
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic techniques
bring unconscious (repressed) thoughts into consciousness and these thoughts are interpreted by analyst (manifest vs. latent content); therapist is trying to see links between words and underlying meaning
free association-talk
the actual words said
ie: patient talks about being possessive in a relationship
manifest content
underlying meaning of the words; how the analyst interprets meaning
ie: possessiveness interpreted as due to father abandoning patient as a child
latent content
-manifest vs. latent content (horse example)
-person must not just remember things from the unconscious but must regain access to the feelings that went along with them.
-this will allow for catharsis
interpreting dreams
emotional release
ie: reliving the sadness of being abandoned
catharsis
-patient responds to analyst in personal terms
-analyst identifies with a person who has been at the center of emotional conflict in the person's past
-ie: transferring emotions of being abandoned to analyst as if they were the father who left
transference
-importance of unlearning stimulus-response association and learning new S-R association
1. classical conditioning
2. operant conditioning
behavior therapy
1. systematic desensitization
2. implosion
3. aversion therapy
classical conditioning techniques
-mainly used with phobias
1) learn relaxation technique-relax muscles when tense
2) fear hierarchy-least to most feared situation
3) desensitization-imagine each situation while staying relaxed
-fear is replaced by relaxation
systematic desensitization
-no hierarchy
-continuous intense exposure to anxiety provoking situation
ie: keeping hand washer from washing hands
-implosion may cause more anxiety
implosion
-learn a negative association
-positive association replaced with negative association
ie: drinking & nausea; Rachel & Phoebe from Friends
aversion therapy
Reinforcement (reward)--token economy; you reward behavior with a token (positive reinforcement)
Punishment--time out
operant conditioning techniques
-goal is growth in self awareness and self acceptance, not cure
-help client fulfill their potential, recognize their freedoms and enhance their self esteem
-must treat person at a global level (as a whole person)
-stresses the present
humanistic therapy
-a type of humanistic therapy
-Carl Rogers
-have client arrive at insights, make their own interpretations and take responsibility for their thoughts and actions (you interpret rather than the therapist)
-reflection of feelings-therapist paraphrases what client said to help client understand their emotions
-nondirected-therapist doesn't direct client to a specific topic
-therapist shows unconditional positive regard which creates an atmosphere of acceptance and feedback
client centered therapy
1. modeling
2. social skill learning
3. cognitive restructuring
cognitive therapy techniques
observing models
modeling
learn when, where, why and how to say something to someone else
-generalization is important, you need the ability to generalize what you've learned to other situations
social skill learning
change the way a person thinks about themselves and the world
ie: rational-emotive therapy
cognitive restructuring
changing false (irrational) beliefs
ie: "everyone must hate me" from a depressed person
rational-emotive therapy
-no definite answer
-leads to many therapists using adopting an eclectic approach (combine several approaches)
-behavioral techniques work better with anxiety disorders such as phobias
-cognitive techniques more effective with affective disorders such as depression
what is the best (most effective) therapy?
the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave in relation to one another
social psychology
we need _____ like we need food & water
social interaction
humans have a _____
need to belong; belongingness need
on subjective traits people rate themselves above average; funny, nice, good driver
better than average effect
we interpret our world so that it favors a positive self view
self serving bias
we tend to favor the groups we belong to (in-groups) and dislike those we do not belong to (out-groups)
ie: UK vs Louisville
-in group favoritism evolved due to group conflict across human ancestry; every human society has experienced conflict
in group favoritism
1. Social thinking
2. Social Influence
3. ?
3 Types of Social Psychology
how we come to know and evaluate others
Involves:
1. making attributions
2. attitudes
social thinking
explaining the behavior of ourselves and others
-was the cause of something due to external situation a person is in or a person's internal disposition?
-includes fundamental attribution error bias
making attributions
we tend to overemphasize dispositional factors (especially with respect to others); we blame others when something happens rather than the situation
fundamental attribution error bias
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predisposes us to respond in a particular way to an object, idea, person, group of people or event
-includes: likes and dislikes; for or against
attitudes
actions
behavior
Attitudes can:
1. precede actions
2. follow behavior
example: I don't like cigarettes and I won't smoke any
attitude preceding an action
1. persuasion
2. dehumanization
2 ways attitudes can change & influence behavior
used by advertisers to persuade
examples: birth control ad; video about advertisers
-use of heuristics
persuasion
"rules of thumb strategies"; mental shortcuts
examples of heuristics in persuasion:
1. being persuaded merely on the basis of the number of arguments
2. being persuaded on the basis of celebrity or sexual images in an ad
heuristics
psychological erasure of human qualities
-gives you a defense, freeing you from painful or overwhelming emotion
-examples: Iraq, women as objects, criminals
dehumanization
1. cognitive dissonance
2. foot in the door phenomena
attitudes following a behavior
the tension that arises when we are aware that our attitudes and behaviors do not match
-attitudes influence how we behave, but not perfectly (ie: smoking)
-people often change their attitudes so they fit their behaviors (rationalization); they less often change their behaviors to fit their attitudes (changing your actions)
examples: smoking marijuana-> smoking isn't so bad
love for spouse, then cheating->cheating isn't so bad, it was only once
exercise important->not exercising, so it must not be that important
cognitive dissonance
change thoughts/rationalize or change behavior; it is easier to rationalize rather than change behavior
options to resolve cognitive dissonance
"start small and build"
example: homeowners with the small or large sign in their yard. Almost all agreed to the small sign in their yard and two weeks later 76% agreed to post the same large sign.
foot in the door phenomena
behavior controlled by the presence and actions of others without regard to underlying attitudes
-conforming to those around us
ie: elevator, dead poets society, mean girls
includes conformity within a group
social influence
Asch experiment
He showed a standard line and three different size lines and asked the participant which of the three the standard line matched.
There were two groups:
Group A: the participant gives an answer before five confederates who give wrong answers
Group B: the participant gives an answer after five confederates who give wrong answers
Results across 12 trials showed:
Group A had 5% errors on at least 1 trial
Group B had 70% errors on at least 1 trial
conformity within a group
why conformity?
it is socially desirable, we want to be part of a group
Nazi Germany-why were so many killed? Soldiers said they were just following orders
Milgram experiment
obedience to authority
learner and teacher, teacher gives learner a shock for wrong answers
-each time learner is wrong, voltage increases by 15 (highest is 450 volts)
-voltage box marked from slight shock (15-60) all the way to XXX (435-450 volts)
-during the experiment at:
75 volts the learner moaned loudly
90 volts learner cries out in pain
150 volts screams to be let out of experiment
330 volts no response
-people who were administering the charges did protest, but continued when encouraged by authority figure
2/3 went to the highest shock
Milgram experiment
why do people obey authority figures?
1. blind obedience
2. legitimate authority
3. role relationship; ie: student/professor
4. following orders
If people in the Milgram experiment perceive others disobeying they are more or less likely to disobey themselves?
More likely; those who continue the shocking decrease if others are seen as disobeying; it's easier to stop if someone else has a problem with it.