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70 Cards in this Set

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compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all, have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule (CH2O)n
Simple Carbohydrates (sugars)
monosaccharides and disaccharides
Complex Carbohydrates (starches and fibers)
Polysaccharides composed of straight or branched chains of monosaccharides.
carbohydrates of the general formula CnH2nOn that typically form a single ring.
a monosaccharide; sometimes known as blood sugar or dextrose
a monosaccharide; sometimes known as fruit sugar or levulose. It is found abundantly in fruits, honey, and saps
a monosaccharide; part of the disaccharide lactose
pairs of monosaccharides linked together
a chemical reaction in which two reactants combine to yield a larger product
a disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes known as malt sugar
a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; commonly known as table sugar, beet sugar, or cane sugar. It also occurs in many fruits and some vegetables and grains.
a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; commonly known as milk sugar
compounds composed of many monosaccharides linked together.
an intermediate string of three to ten monosaccharides linked together
an animal polysaccharide composed of glucose; manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. it is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods.
plant polysaccharides composed of glucose
Dietary Fibers
in plans foods, the nonstarch polysaccharids that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria.
Dietary Fibers
These include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages and the nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins.
Soluble Fibers
Indigestible food components that dissolve in water to form a gel. An example is pectin from fruit, which is used to thicken jellies.
A gel-like consistency
Insoluble Fibers
Indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water. Examples include the tough, fibrous structures found int eh strings of celery and the skins of corn kernels.
Resistant Starches
Starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people
Phytic Acid
A nonnutrient component of plant seeds. It occurs in the husks of grains, legumes and seeds and is capable of binding minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and copper in insoluble complexes in the intestine, which the body excretes unused.
A nonnutrient component of plant seeds. It occurs in the husks of grains, legumes and seeds and is capable of binding minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and copper in insoluble complexes in the intestine, which the body excretes unused.
an enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose (a form of starch). It is a carbohydrase, and enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.
the feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. It determines how much time passes between meals.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose
an enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose
an enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose
Lactose Intolerance
a condition that results from the inability to digest the milk sugar lactose; characterized by bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. It differs from milk allergy, which is caused by an immune reaction to the protein milk
Lactase Deficiency
a lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose)
a fermented milk, created by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus and other bacteria that break down lactose to glucose and galactose, producing a sweet, lactose-free product
the making of glucose from a noncarbohydrate source
Protein-sparing action
the action of carbohydrate (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes
Ketone Bodies
the product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available tin the cells
an undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies int eh blood and urine.
Acid-base balance
the equilibrium in the body between acid and base concentrations
a hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to (among other things) increased blood glucose concentration. It's primary role is to control the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into the muscle and fat cells.
a hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration and elicits release of glucose from liver glycogen stores
a hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response; formerly called adrenaline. When administered by injection, it counteracts anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure.
a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin
Type 1 Diabetes
the less common type of diabetes in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin
Type 2 Diabetes
the more common type of diabetes in which the cells fail to respond to insulin
An abnormally low blood glucose concentration
Glycemic Response
the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits and insulin response
Glycemic Index
a method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose
Added Sugars
sugars and syrups used as an ingredient in the processing and preparation of foods such as breads, cakes, beverages, jellies, and ice cream as well as sugars eaten separately or added to foods at the table.
Dental Caries
Decay of teeth
Dental Plaque
a gummy mass of bacteria that grows on teeth and can lead to dental caries and gum disease
a neurotransmitter important in sleep regulation, appetite control, intestinal motility, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and mood disorders
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)
the estimated amount of a sweetener that individuals can safely consume each day over the course of a lifetime without adverse effect
Name 6 simple carbohydrates and their structure.
1) Glucose (C6,H12,O6)
2) Fructose (C6,H12,O6)
3) Galactose (C6,H12,O6)
4) Maltose (glucose + glucose)
5) Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
6) Lactose (glucose + galactose)
Name 3 types of polysaccharides that are important in nutrition and what they are made of.
1) Glycogen (human way of storing glucose)
2) Starches (plant way of storing glucose)
3) Fiber (structural part of plants, glucose but bonds can not be readily broken down)
the simple sugar found in fruit, honey, and high fructose corn syrup is what?
Amylose and amylopectin are 2 types of what?
Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are examples of what?
Insoluble fibers
Gum, pectin, and mucilage are examples of what?
Soluble fibers
What is the main function of carbohydrates in the body?
What are 2 secondary functions of carbohydrates in the body?
Protein sparing and sweetener
What problems result when insufficient intake of carbohydrates occurs?
Gluconeogensis and Ketosis
How many carbohydrates are needed per day to prevent gluconeogenesis and ketotis?
100 g
What are some beneficial effects of dietary fiber?
1) Promotes softer, larger stool and regularity
2) Slows glucose absorption
3) Reduces blood cholesterol
4) Reduces heart disease
5) Reduces hemorrhoids and diverticula
What is the RDA for carbohydrates?
130 g/day
What percent of your dietary intake should be carbohydrates?
What is the RDA for fiber?
21-38 g/day
What is lactose intolerance?
the reduction of the enzyme lactase in the body either from loss of the enzyme or injury to the small intestine from antibiotics or radiation
What can you do if you are lactose intolerant?
determine how much you can tolerate (typically 1/2 cup), eat dairy with fat, cheese and yogurt are usually tolerated well, and try Lactaide
What organs maintain blood glucose homeostasis
pancreas releases glucagon and insulin
liver regulates glucose that enters the blood stream
What does insulin do?
reduces gluconeogenesis,
increase glucose uptake by the cells
promotes glucogen synthesis
Net effect is decreased blood sugar
What does glucagon do?
breaks down glycogen
enhances gluconeogenesis
Net effect of increasing blood sugar