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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


Brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, subcortical structures, and brainstem) and spinal cord


cranial and spinal nerves


help separate neurons from each other, important for supplying nutrients, help create the blood brain barrier, kept toxins from blood from affecting the brain

Microglial Cells

eat up necrotic tissue fromed by injury or lesion

glial cells

supporting synaptic activity in neural system

outnumber neurons 10-1

-make up myelin in CNS

Schwann Cells

make up myelin in PNS

Neural Transmission

•chemicalsubstance released from preceding neuron reacts with the cell membrane•generatesa postsynaptic electrical potential•Canbe excitatory or inhibitory

Resting State of Neuron


-unequal concentration on either side of axon wall

-high concentration of K+(30 times as much inside than out)

-inside low concentration of Cl- and Na+

Resting state of neuron (outside of wall)

-high Na+ concentration (10x)

-about -70mV

Resting Potential

the amount of negative charge inside cell body

sodium potassium pump

pumpNa+ back out and K+ back in

maintains resting potential

runs on ATP from mitochondria

concentration gradient maintained

passive movement of ions

membrane is semi-permeable

concentration gradient is maintained by pump

inside of cell negative relative to outside


depolarization of dendritic zone


hyperpolarization of neuron, (raises the threshold for firing)

Critical firing level for transmission

-50 mV

-occurs when cell membrane is adequately stimulated (reaches a threshold)

-allows ion exchange between intracellular and extracellular spaces

-Na+ allowed into cell, changes the charge inside the cell to positive, known as depolarization

Absolute Refractory Period

–Furtherstimulation of neuron in that area of membrane has no effect for about 1 msec.

-Cannot fire until RMP reaches -50 mV

Relative Refractory Period

–Followsthe absolute refractory period

–Occurswhen RMP reaches

-50mV again

–Lasts3 to 4 msec in motor nerves

–Membranerequires greater than normal stimulation to fire again

—impulses from many different activations from different parts of the dendrite arrive at the same time
Temporal summation
if many small epsp arrive at in quick succession from the same , the neuron ismore likely to fire