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236 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Anything that occupies space


The ability to do work

The two types of energy

Kinetic energy

Potential energy

Kinetic energy

Getting up to the top of the roller coaster

Pulling back the rubber band

Potential energy

Going down the roller coaster

Letting the rubber and go

Four types of potential energy





Chemical energy

The sun

Electrical energy

Wall outlet

Mechanical energy


Radiant energy

The sun


Fundamental units of matter

Everything the world is made up of

(Example: oxygen)

What percentage of our body is made up of four



What are the four elements that make up the human body

Carbon (C)

Oxygen (O)

Hydrogen (H)

Nitrogen (N)

What is an atom

The building block of an element

What atoms are contained in a nucleus

Protons (p+)

Neutrons (n0)

Is a proton positive, negative or neutral


Is a neutron positive, negative or neutral


Where are electrons located

Outside of the nucleus

Are electrons positive, negative or neutral

Negative (e-)

What makes up a neutral atom

An equal number of protons and electrons

Atomic number

Equal to the number of protons that the atoms contain

True or false

All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number


True or false

All atoms of the same element have different atomic numbers


Atomic mass number

Sum of the protons and neutrons

Isotopes have the same number of...


Isotopes vary in number of ...


Give an example of an isotope for C12


What device measures atomic weight

A geiger counter

Atomic weight

Close to mass number of most abundant


What is the atomic weight of

C12, C12, C12, C14, C14, C13

and why

C12, because even though there are six isotopes, C12, is the one that occurs the most


The process of spontaneous atomic decay

Choose one of the underlined words

Radioisotopes tend to be stable or unstable


True or false

Radioisotopes are heavy isotopes


What do radio isotopes do

Decompose to more stable isoptope


Two or more atoms combined chemically

(Example: H + H= H2)


Two or more different atoms combined


(Example: H + H + O= H2O)

True or false

Compounds form a substance that is different from the original atoms


Chemical reactions occur when

Atoms combine or dissociate from other atoms

Chemical bonds involve an interaction between the

Electrons of two or more atoms

How are atoms united

By chemical bonds

Electrons occupy energy levels called

Electron shells

Which electrons are most strongly attracted and why

The electrons closest to the nucleus because the are lowest in energy

Distinct properties of a shell

Number of electrons has an upper limit

Shells closest to the nucleus fill first and can hold two electrons

Every other shell can hold eight electrons

How many electrons can the shell closest to the nucleus hold


What is the outer shell called

The valance shell

Bonding involves interactions between...

Electrons in the valence shell

If a valance shell is full, does it form a bond

No, because it is full, it has no space to bond

When is the valence shell stable

When it has a complete compliment of electrons

Why do chemically based atoms form bonds

Because they are trying to complete the valence shell. When the valence shell is complete (full) it is stable.

Are inert elements stable


Will inert elements form a chemical reaction

No, because it is stable

Do inert elements have complete or incomplete valence shells


Give an example of inert elements

The noble gases

Rule of 8's

No more than eight electrons in a shell

When do ionic bonds form

When electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another

Ionic bonds occur because of the

Force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions

What are ions

Charged particles

Fill in the "blanks"

Anions are "blank"; has "blank" electrons

Anions are "negative"; has "gained" electrons

(Example: When your bank account is overdrawn, there is nothing left to take. All you can do is make a deposit. Anions will always GAIN electrons.)

Fill in the "blank"

Cations are "blank"; has "blank" electrons

Cations are "positive"; has lost electrons

(Example: Bank account is in the positive. A cation can lose

What does inert mean

It is stable, there will not be a chemical reaction

True or false

Reactive ions have full valence shells


Do reactive elements tend to lose, gain or share electrons

They lose, share and gain

In reactive elements, what does losing, gaining and sharing electrons allow for

Allows for bond formation, which produces stable valence

What does the prefix Intra mean

Inside, or from within

Intramolecular bonds

Bonds within a molecule

Purpose of intramolecular bonds

Holds atoms together to form a molecule

Two types of Intramolecular bonds

Ionic bond

Covalent bond

What does the prefix Inter mean

In between



(Example: Two separate valence shells both have seven electrons, they are both missing one electron. So one says, how about if I jump ship and you jump ship, (meaning switching spots) by switching spots they form a bond to help complete that last outside spot, they both EXCHANGE to form a bond)



(Example: Two separate valence shells both have seven electrons, they are both missing one

electron they are too lazy to jump ship so they decide to just share the last spot.)

Which bond is the strongest and why

The covalent bond because of SHARING

(Example: shaking hands, they are sharing so it is very strong)

Dual covalent bond share

Two pair of electrons

Intermolecular bond

Bonds between molecules; holds molecules together

What type of bond is a hydrogen bond

Intermoleular bond

(Example: shaking hands with a piece of paper in between. Easily broken apart)

What are the four main types of bonds





What type of bond is an ionic bond

Intramolecular bond

What type of bond is a covalent bond

Intramolecular bond

What bond is the weakest

Hydrogen bond

Name the two types of ions



Single covalent bonds share

One pair of electrons


Covalent bonded molecules

The two types of molecules in covalent bonds



Non-polar molecules have an

Equal sharing of electrons

Fill in the "blank"

Non-polar molecules are "blank" as a molecule

Non-polar molecules are "electrically neutral" as a molecule

True or false

Polar molecules share electrons equally


Fill in the "blank"

Polar molecules have a "blank" and a "blank" side

Polar molecules have a "positive" and a

"negative" side

What is reverse polarity

Taking a battery and turning it around. It

reverses the polarity from what was to what is

Why are non-polar molecules neutral

Because there is equal sharing going on

There is always an odd man out and unequal sharing in which

polarity; polar or non-polar


Chemical reactions

Making OR breaking bonds between atoms

True or false

In a chemical reaction, the total number of atoms changes


(The total number of atoms remains the same but appear in different combinations)

True or false

In chemical reactions, the total number of atoms remains the same but appear in different combinations



Building something (which will require energy)

Synthesis reaction

Atoms or molecules combine and energy is

absorbed for bond formation

(Example: A+B= AB)

(Example: Walking to the vending machine, uses energy)

In synthesis reaction, why is energy absorbed

For bond formation


Breaking apart (which will release energy)

Decomposition reaction

Molecule is broken down and chemical energy is released

(Example: AB=A+B)

(Example: Pile driving the vending machine, releases energy))

What is glycogen

Stored sugar in animals

What are stored sugar in plants



Is an example of...

Is an example of...

Synthesis reaction

Is an example of...

Is an example of...

Decomposition reaction

Exchange reaction

Involves BOTH synthesis and decomposition


(Example: AB+C=AC+B)

What happens in exchange reaction

Switch is made between molecule parts and

different molecules are made

During exchange reaction, are using AND

releasing energy performed


A stored version of sugar is essentially


Taking blood glucose and to make ATP is an

example of

Exchange reaction

Which compound lacks Carbon, organic or inorganic


Which compound contains Carbon, organic or inorganic


Which compounds tends to be simpler , organic or inorganic


Which compounds are mostly covalent bonded, organic or inorganic


C6H12O6 (glucose) is an example of which compound, organic or inorganic


H2O (water) is an example of which compound, organic or inorganic


What is the most abundant inorganic compound in the body


Vital properties of water

(Meaning, what does it do for us)

High heat capacity

Polarity/solvent properties

Chemical reactivity - hydrolysis

Cushioning (insulation)

What does solvent mean

Breaking down

(Usually a liquid base)


Cutting water

What is a Solution

A homogenous mixture of two or more

components; evenly distributed

(Example: bottle of Dr. Pepper)



What is a Solute

What is being broken down

What is a Suspension

A mixture that will separate unless continually shaken

(Example: Oil and water, dirt and water)

What does colloid mean


Cholloidal suspension

Solvent is a colloid (gel) and solute is so small that it remains suspended but not equally distributed

(Example: An oreo Mcflurry or a Reeses pieces frenzy)

What type of compound is salt


(it is not carbon based)

Why is salt so important

It is vital to many body functions

Fill in the "blank"

Salt includes "blank" which conduct electrical currents

Salts include "electrolytes" which conduct electrical currents

Fill in the "blanks"

Salts easily "blank' into ions in the "blank" of "blank"

Salts easily "dissociate" into ions in the

"presence" of "water"

What is dehydration

An imbalance in your body, robbing the body of it's water content and electrolytes

With dehydration, which "system" suffers the most

The nervous system

What do acids do

Release detectable hydrogen ions (H+); proton donors

What do bases do

Release hydroxide ion (OH-); proton acceptors

What happens in neutralization reaction

Acids and bases react to form water and a salt

Where does neutralization fall on the pH scale

7 (7 is neutral)

What are you measuring if something is acidic

You are measuring the H+ or the hydrogen content of that item

What are you measuring if the item is a base (or basic)

You are measuring the OH- ion distribution known as hydroxide

What is a salt

A compound element (Na)

What is an electrolyte

Minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge

What does pH measure

The relative concentration of hydrogen ions

Choose the correct underlined word

Everything above or below 7 is considered acidic on the pH scale

Below (as in number)

Choose the correct underlined word

Everything above or below 7 is considered basic on the pH scale

Above (as in number)

The three important compounds




How are carbohydrates classified

By their size

What does the prefix mono mean


What does the prefix di mean


What are monosaccharides

Simple sugars

Name the five simple sugars






Name the three disaccharides




What does disaccharides mean

Two simple sugars joined by dehydration


Why are some people lactose intolerant

They lack an enzyme

(meaning they lack the ability to break down the sugar in milk)

What is lactose

Sugar in milk

What does the prefix poly mean

More than two

What does polysaccharide mean

Long branching chains of linked simple sugars

Polysaccharides are commonly referred to as

Complex carbohydrates

What is the polysaccharide in animals known as


What are the polysaccharides in plants known as



What are all carbohydrates used by the body for


Finish the sentence

Carbohydrates are used by the body to

Process energy

Are carbohydrates an organic or inorganic



What are lipids


Are lipids soluble or insoluble in water


What do lipids contain




Where are triglycerides found

In fat deposits from the food we eat

Does cholesterol get used by the body


Not ever

What are triglycerides also known as

Neutral fats

What are neutral fats (triglycerides) composed of

Composed of three fatty acids and glycerol

Neutral fats (triglycerides) are a source of

Stored energy

What are the two types of cholesterol

LDL = Low density lipoproteins

HDL= High density lipoproteins

Which of the two types of cholesterol is the bad one


Which of the two types of cholesterol is the good one


Between saturated fats and unsaturated fats, which one is unhealthy to the body

Saturated fats

Why are saturated fats unhealthy to the body

Saturated fats are full of LDL and our bodies can't process it

Why can't our bodies process LDL

Because our body doesn't make any LDL so it doesn't know how to process it and break it down

The human body is capable of making which type of cholesterol, LDL or HDL


What percentage of our daily needs is the body able to make of HDL


What percentage of our daily needs of HDL has to come from our diet


What organ is responsible for making HDL

The liver

What does LDL cause in the human body

Plaquing of the arteries

(Example: not picking u the garbage on a street for a month even though everyone continues to put the garbage by the road)

(Blood vessels end up the same way from LDL)

What is the best way to remove LDL from the body

Exercise, cardio

Where does LDL collect in the body

Blood vessels

What are the common lipids found in the human body



Neutral fats (triglycerides)

What do phospholipids do

Maintain your membranes at the cellular level

What are phospholipids composed of

Composed of two fatty acids, glyserol, and a phosphate group

What do phospholipids do

Form cell membranes

Is the body capable of producing its own steroids


Is eliminating lipids from your body healthy


What are included in steroids


Bile salts

Vitamin D

Some hormones

Which lipids does our body need to be healthy


Main purpose of cholesterol

The basis for all steroids made in the body

In determining which triglyceride is good or bad for you, what does the L in LDL and the H in HDL stand for

L in LDL stands for Lousy (bad)

H in HDL stands for Happy (good)

What are proteins made of

Amino acids held together by peptide bonds

(basically long chains of amino acids)

How much LDL comes from your diet


ESSENTIAL amino acids

Has to be acquired from the diet

NONESSENTIAL amino acids

The body can make them

If you deny your body of all lipids what are you actually doing to your body

Decreasing the integrity of your cell membranes

because you are depriving yourself of


What is the phospholipid bylayer and what forms it

The integrity of your cells and it is formed by phospholipids (hence the name)

You can not have a protein if you have no...

Amino acids

Complete proteins

Contain all the essential amino acids; animal sources

Incomplete proteins

Lacking one or more essential amino acids;

vegetable sources must be eaten in combination

Can a vegetarian style diet be healthy

Yes, IF it is done correctly

How is a vegetarian style diet done correctly

You must supplement your diet to get all of the essential amino acids

What happens if you are lacking in essential amino acids

The body is unable to make complete proteins, which causes malnourishment

Fill in the "blank"

Proteins account for over half of the body's "blank" "blank"

Proteins account for over half of the body's "organic" "matter"

What are the two types of proteins



Which type of protein is fibrous


Which type of protein is globular


Structural (fibrous) proteins

Provides for construction materials for body


Functional (globular) proteins

Play a vital role in cell function

Which protein plays a vital role in cell function

Functional proteins

Which protein provides for construction materials for body tissues

Structural proteins

Functional proteins act as..

Enzymes, hormones and antibodies


Act as biological catalyst

What do enzymes do

Increase the rate of chemical reaction


A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.

(example: salt in water on the stove, the salt is a catalyst making the water boil faster.)

Name the two nucleic acids



Nucleotide bases for DNA





Nucleotide bases for RNA





What is RNA

RNA is a copy of the DNA

Using the nucleotides that pair up with each other what would AAA CCG turn into for DNA


In DNA what can Adenine pair up with


In DNA what can Thymine pair up with


In DNA what can cytosine pair up with


In DNA what can guanine pair up with


Using the nucleotides that pair up with each other what would AAA CCG turn into for RNA


In RNA what can Adenine pair up with


In RNA what can Uracil pair up with


In RNA what can cytosine pair up with


In RNA what can guanine pair up with


What is the purpose of RNA

In order to heal ourselves, we need to take our DNA and replicate & copy it to build a new skin cell for the broken area

(Example: broken skin)

What do the letters DNA stand for

Deoxyribonucleic acid

How are Deoxyribonucleic acids organized

By complimentary bases to form a double helix

When speaking in construction terms, what is the DNA

The blueprints

When speaking in construction terms, what is RNA

The instructions

Does EVERY cell, or only some cells have a copy of the DNA

Every cell

When must the DNA be replicated

Before cell division

What do the letters ATP stand for

Adenosine triphosphate

What is ATP

Chemical energy used by all cells

How is ATP replenished

By oxidation of food fuels

(Carbohydrates and lipids/fats)