Oligodendrocytes Essay

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Neurons are not the only cells that occupied the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, neurons are outnumbered by supportive non-excitable cells, collectively called neuroglia (a.k.a. glia). The term glia was coined by Rudolph Virchow in 1859 to indicate the “connective tissue” surrounding the neurons (glia came from Greek meaning glue). However, the combination of the activities of glial cells and neurons is crucial for brain functions (Steward 2000).
There are three types of glial cells in the CNS that can be distinguished by size and embryonic origin: oligodendrocytes (a.k.a. oligodendroglia), astrocytes (a.k.a. astroglia) and microglia (Fig. 1.1). In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) Schwann cells can be found. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes originate from the neuroepithelium, whereas microglia originate from the mesoderm. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are in control of myelin production and are thus responsible for the high speed processing of signals through the axons. Astrocytes are a heterogeneous cell population that interact with neurons and blood vessels to detect
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The cell-surface ligands of RAGE interact and result in sustained cellular activation via multiple signaling pathways that lead to propagation of inflammatory responses. Among RAGE ligands, S100B suggested to mediate the significant role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of certain human diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. However, RAGE has been poorly investigated in the epileptogenesis (E. Leclerc, et al. 2009, Guo, et al. 2016). Recent study (Iori, et al. 2013), reported that RAGE was upregulated in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and contributed to experimental seizures, which revealed a new molecular mechanism involving inflammatory pathways. Thus, RAGE may have an important role in human

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