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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A. Ecology
a. 2 components
i. Abiotic componets
1. wind
2. rocks and soil
3. periodic disturbances or cycles
ii. Biotic components
1. other organisms
2. same species…
3. …or different species
B. Fields of ecology
a. Community
b. Organismal
c. Population
d. Ecosystem Ecology
C. Population ecology
a. Composed of members of the same species living in a particular place
D. Factors influencing Populations
a. Size
b. Density
c. Growth rate of pop
d. structure
E. Population size and density
a. Size
i. Total number of individuals
b. Density
i. Number of individuals per unit area
c. How to measure
i. Mark-recapture
F. Dispersion pattern- how are individuals spaced?
a. Clumped
i. Most common
ii. Because resources are distributed unevenly
b. Uniform
i. Result of interactions within the population
ii. Ex: penguins and plants in the desert
iii. Social interaction
iv. Resource competition
c. Random
i. Absence of strong attractors/repulstions
G. Population growth
G. Population growth
a. Exponential growth model
i. Rate of growth under ideal conditions
ii. With no limiting factors
iii. Growth unregulated
iv. Determined by
1. growth per year/70
v. typical growth seen in
1. early stages of disease epidemics
2. plankton blooms
3. successful invasive species
4. and human growth consumption
b. Logistic growth model
i. Limiting factors slow growth as pop gets bigger
ii. Idealized growth slowed
iii. Place where it levels off is CARRYING CAPACITY
c. Population-limiting factors
i. Two categories:
1. density-dependent
a. effects increase as pop size increases
b. limited food
c. limited space
d. waste buildup
2. density-independent
a. abiotic factors
b. freezes
c. droughts
d. fires
e. USUALLY kick in first to define carrying capacity
f. Most populations are a mix of factors
H. Human Population Growth
a. Age structure
i. Proportion individuals in different age groups
ii. Predict population growth
I. Population cycles
a. Many populations fairly steady
b. Some are not
J. Life Tables
a. Survival and death tracked via Life Tables
b. Predict life expectancy
L. Life Histories
a. Made up of traits affecting schedule of
i. Reproduction and death
b. Opportunistic
i. Unpredictable environments
1. conditions good
a. exponential
ii. quantity over quality
1. ie: flowers
c. Equilibrial
i. Predictable environments
ii. Quality over quantity
1. ie: elephants