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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the legitimate use of force to control human behavior; also, the organization or agency authorized to exercise that force
national sovereignty
a political entity's externally recognized right to exercise final authority over its affairs
established ways of social behavior. maintaining order is the oldest purpose of government
a complex theory that gives ownership of all land and productive facilities to the people-in effect, to the government
public goods
benefits and services that benefit all citizens but are not likely to be produced voluntarily by individuals
police power
the authority of government to maintain order and safe guard citizens' safety, health, welfare, and morals.
political equality
equality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counting equally
social equality
equality of wealth, education, and status
equality of opportunity
the idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life
equality of outcome
the concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status to achieve economic and social equality
the benefits of government to which every citizen is entitled
political ideology
a consistant set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government
a political philosophy that advocates unlimited power for the government to enable it to control all sectors of society
a form of rule in which the central government plays a strong role in regulating existing private industry and regulating the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity
democratic socialism
a socialist form of government that guarantees civil liberities such as freedom of speech and religion. Citizens determine the extent of government activity through free elections and competitive political parties
the system of government that favors free enterprise (privately owned businesses operating without government regulation).
a political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property
laissez faire
an economic doctrine that opposes any form of government intervention in business
a political philosophy that opposes government in any form
those who are willing to use government to promote equality but not order
those who are willing to use government to promote order but not equality
those who are opposed to using government to promote either order or equality
those who are willing to use government to promote both order and equality
a system of government which, in theory, the people rule, either directly or indirectly
procedural democratic theory
a view of democracy as being embodied in a decision-making process that involved universal participation, majority rule, political equality, and responsiveness
universal participation
the concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making
majority rule
the principle-basic to procedural democratic theory-that the decision of a group must reflect the preference of more than half of those participating; a simple majority
plurality rule
the group should do what the largest group wants, even if fewer than half of those involved hold that view
participatory democracy
a system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf
representative democracy
a system of government where citizens elect public officials to govern on their behalf
a decision making principle, necessitated by representative government, that implies that elected representatives should do what the majority of people wants
four principles of procedural democracy
universal participation
political equality
majority rule
government responsiveness to public opinion
substantive democratic theory
the view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policymaking procedure
minority rights
the benefits of government that cannot be denied to any citizens by majority decisions
majoritarian model of democracy
the classical theory of democracy in which government by the people is interpreted as government by the majority of the people
interest group
an organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy
pluralist model of democracy
an interpretation of democracy in which government by the people is taken to mean government by people operating through competing interest groups
elite theory
the view that a small group of people actually makes most of the important government decisions
a system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few people
a proces of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one
social contract theory
the belief that the people agree to set up rules for certain purposes and thus have the right to resist or remove rulers to act against those purposes
a government without a monarch, a government rooted in the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by elected representatives responsible to the governed.
a loose association of independent states that agree to cooperate on specified matters
Virginia Plan
a set of proposals for a new government, submitted to the Constitutional Convention of 1787; including separation of powers, bicameral legislation, and proportional representation in the legislature
New Jersey Plan
submitted by the head of the New Jersey delegation to the Constitutional Convention, a set of 9 resolutions that would have amended the Art. of Con. instead of replacing them
Great Compromise
also the Connecticut Compromise, calls for bicameral legislation, HoR apportioned to population, Senate gets equal representation
a form of government in which power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected representatives
the division of power between a central government and regional governments
enumerated powers
the powers explicitly granted to Congress by the Constitution