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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what is an ideology?

an organized set of related ideas that modify and support each other

what are the two main ideologies among Americans?

1. American liberalism

2. American conservatism

what is American Liberalism?

an ideology that supports the underdogs

what are some things that American Liberals would support?

economic equality

support of ethnic minorities, women, and gays environmental protection

defense for freedom of expression

what is American Conservatism?

an ideology that emphasizes the need to keep government regulation of peoples lives to a minimum

what are some things American Conservatives would support?

right to own guns

consumer's rights

business owner rights

morality and spirituality

opposition to abortion

what does shivery describe american ideologies as?

untidy mixtures

what does shivery say that both american conservatives and liberals policy is on international affairs?

when a person of their own party is in office they trust them more and more internationalists. when someone of the opposing party is in office they are more isolationist.

what are the three great ideologies that were developed in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries?

1. liberalism

2. conservatism

3. socialism

what are the two very important things to remember about the medieval social arrangements of Europe?

1. people were bound to each other in complex and cumbersome systems of domination

2. the arrangements were static and difficult to change

what change in the social structure came that led to the development of liberalism and eventually other ideologies?

industrialization and the formation of the commercial and industrial elite

although the industrial elite were the ones who needed liberalism the most who actually invented the ideology?

intellectuals who were moved by the general artistic and scientific restlessness of the age

what is liberalism?

focuses on the highest good of society and the ability of members of society to develop their own individual capacities to the fullest, therefore people should be responsible for themselves

what are the five elements according to shivery that constitute the liberal ideology?

1. democracy is the proper form of government

2. people should have full intellectual freedom

3. the government should remain minimal and should not regulate people's lives (as little as possible)

4. power of one over another is a bad thing

what is libertarianism?

a relatively pure version of liberalism advocating laissez-faire political philosophy

liberals view politics as... (power of choice)

choice, they see power as a bad thing that should be limited and politics should consists of public choices

where did the conservatism ideology come from?

defenders of the medieval social arrangements created it in response to liberalism

what is the implied basic premise of liberalism?

the goodness of a society should be judged by the extent to which the individuals in it are able to develop their capacities

what is the implied basic premise of conservatism?

the societies are more than just a sum of their parts, that society creates greater happiness through its existence as a group

what is conservatism?

an ideology that advocates maintenance and order (structure) in society

who was conservatism useful to?

aristocracy, established church, others trying to maintain their positions

conservatives view politics as... (power of choice)

power, they argued that power had to be present in order to help the weak

where did socialism arise from?

the working class, they found that liberalism did provide them with enough protection against unemployment and sickness

what is socialism?

an ideology that assumes (as liberals would) that everyone should have equal treatment by the state but doesn't believe people can develop individually and therefore is more supportive of government power

who is was the greatest socialist writer?

Karl Marx

according to Marx what is a class?

a group of people who share the same relationship to the means of production and who therefore develop a distinctive view of themselves and of the world.

what was Marx's theory that rallied the working class as socialists?

history consists of an successive unfolding of domination by one group, leading to revolution followed by domination again, then revolt, and so on

where did communism derive from?

socialism and Karl Marx, the people who believed that his theory would be achieved through revolt (rather than electoral victory)

the band of socialists who believed marx's theory could be completed through electoral victory called themselves

Democratic Socialist or just socialists

what is fascism?

less of an ideology and more of a style of politics, it rejected institutions of modern life and focused on charismatic dictatorial leaders, they were anti-socialists

who did fascism appeal to?

the people who were left out in the modern age

what is neoliberalism?

governments that hold all of the main concepts of other ideologies but adopt the economic part of liberalism, because it benefits them better

what is an example of neoliberalism country?


what sets religions apart from ideologies?

their origin of divine inspiration

religion's part in politics is as a identity group, which is what?

a group of people who share an identity that they think defines them and sets them apart from others

how do ideologies typical develop?

in response to dominant problems and dilemmas that people face at a given time