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10 Cards in this Set
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Arguments

a series of statements, the last of which (the conclusion) supposedly follows from the preceding statements (the premises)


Validity

an argument is valid if its conclusion must be true if all of its premises are true.


Soundness

an argument is sound if it is valid and has all true premises


Fallacies

error of reason; denying the antecedent.
ex. : "If Julie is made of wood, then she weighs less than a duck. It's not the case that she is made of wood. Therefore, it is not the case that she weighs less than a duck." 

Steps in extracting an argument

1. Find the conclusion
deflate put in clear literal words. 2. Find the main premise deflate 3. Fill in the remaining premises try to make it valid 

Logical Form: Modus Ponens

1. P
2. If P, then Q 3. Therefore, Q 

Logical Form: Modus Tollens

1. If P, then Q
2. Not Q 3. Therefore, not P 

Possibility

What's possible is limited by logic, math, and what's conceptually coherent.


Qualitative Identity

X and Y are qualitatively identical: they share the same properties or qualities.


Numerical Identity

X and Y are numerically identical: they are the same object
