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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The five problems of mental phenomena (5-10)

The Privacy of the Mental

Mental-Physical Causation

How does a brain generate a 'Mind'

Qualia (5)

The feeling of feeling, Qualia is a problem for Identity theorists, Suggesting that no matter how much you investigate the brain, you will never be able to know the feeling of doing something, only the effects that it has on the brain

Intentionality (5-8)

Our minds have the ability to represent other things or be about other things.

When you imagine objects, this is your mind representing something

The Privacy of the Mental (8-9)

Only I have direct access to my own mind, everybody else has to rely on my behavior or neuroscience. This is a problem for Identity theorists

Mental-Physical Causation (9)

A problem facing Substance Dualists, this idea that A non-physical event causing a physical event seems not only unlikely, but impossible.

How does the brain generate a 'mind' (9-10)

Another problem for substance dualists: how can a brain create a mind? or how is a non physical mind even come into existence?

Substance Dualism (10-12)

The Idea that the mind is non physical and the brain is physical. The mind and brain communicate, with the mind being in control of the brain

Plato's Substance Dualism (11)

1.The user of a thing and the thing used are two numerically different and distinct things

2. A person uses his/her body

3.Therefore: a person must be numerically different from his/her body

Descartes 'argument from imaginability' (12)

Descartes pointed out that you can doubt the existence of your body, but you cannot doubt that you have a mind. This implies that they are separate things.

Critic's response to Descartes substance dualism (12)

1. Just because you can imagine it, it doesn't mean that it is possible

The 'all or nothing' critique of Substance Dualism (12)

As the mind is independent of the body, the mind of a bee would have the same complexity as the mind of a human, but we know that minds become more complex as the brain does, implying that mind relies on the brain.

The 'concept of a soul' critique of Substance Dualism (13-14)

We cannot give any meaningful or definite account of what a soul/mind is or isn't. it is a meaningless concept that cannot be applied empirically.

'Mind-body interaction' critique of Substance Dualism (14)

How could something composed of nothing physical effect the physical world?

'Neural Dependence' critique of substance dualism (14)

Our mental life is heavily reliant on our brain and nervous system, if you drink alcohol it effects your mind, despite it being physical

Occasionalism (15)

A strain of Substance Dualism, our mind doesn't react with the physical world.

God made mental events and physical events fit together by ensuring correlation between them.

The 4 Reductive Physicalism theories (16-56)

Logical Behaviourism

The identity theory



Logical Behaviourism (16-25)

All mental states can be fully reduced to/described in terms of actual or potential behaviour.

Privacy of the mental Vs Logical behaviourism (21)

We do not need to observe our own behaviour to know how we are feeling, we have direct access.

Qualia Vs Logical behaviourism (21)

Pain seems to have a phenomenological quality (the feel of pain), and to be more than pain behaviour or pain-dispositional behaviour.

The causal role of mental states Vs Logical behaviourism (22-23)

Logical behaviourism is counter intuitive, we normally think that our mental states cause our behaviour, not that they are the same thing.

The holistic nature of the mind Vs logical behaviourism (23)

People's mental states are dependent on their previous mental states. in order to understand their mental state through behaviour you would need to know all their previous mental states.

Hilary Putnam's (who is a man) 'Super Spartans' Vs Logical behaviourism (23-24)

The concept that some people can show no emotion at all despite being in considerable pain would defeat logical behaviourism, although this is just a hypothetical

The Identity Theory

The Mind Is just part of our brain.

Analytical and ontological reduction Argument

Against the Identity theorist view. This is saying that talk of mental states means something completely different to talk of brain states. a reply to this is that you can talk about the same thing with different vocabularies.