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calorie defn

unit measure of energy




1kcal is the amount of energy (heat) needed to raise the temp of 1kg of water by 1C from 15-16C at one atm

calorie on food labels

on food labels, kcal often used interchangeably w calorie but technically should be stated as Calorie or kcal




technically, 1 kcal = 1000calories = 1Calorie




small calorie: amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1g of water by 1C from 15-16C at one atm




internationally: food energy expressed as kilojoules (kj)


1 kcal = 4.184 kj

TEE

Total Energy Expenditure


= energy expended on maintaining basal metabolic rate, physical activity, thermal effect of feeding, and others


(kcal/d needed to maintain current weight)




TEE = BEE x Activity Factor/Stress Factor + TEF + EPOC


-TEF and EPOC often not used in calculation

TEF

thermic effect of food




-contribute to TEE (small)

EPOC

excess post-exercise oxygen consumption




contribute to TEE (small)

BEE

Basal Energy Expenditure


= the matabolic activity necessary to sustain life (ie respiration, body temp, heart beat, etc)


-roughly equals 25kcal/kg


-makes up the majority of the total energy expenditure (TEE)

classes of nutrients

Macronutrients


-carbohydrates


-lipids


-proteins


-water




Micronutrients


-vitamins


-minerals

carbohydrates: roles

-turned into glucose -> major source of energy for the body


-supply glucose for CNS


-role in metabolism, cell component structure

carbohydrates: storage forms

-glycogen in muscle and liver


-excess that cannot be stored as glycogen is stored as fat

carbohydrates: energy content

4.1 calories/gram

carbohydrates: amount in diet

adults: 45-65% of total daily calories should be from carbohydrates


-higher end is for weight gain, endurance exercise

simple carbohydrates

often referred to as "sugars"


-mono and disaccharides: fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose




found in healthy foods such as:


-fruits, milk, milk products, vegetables




also in processed, refined foods:


-candy, pop, syrups, table sugar




aim for as natural a form as possible:


-eg fruit instead of fruit juice, etc

complex carbohydrates

often referred to as "starches"




found in healthy foods such as:


-legumes, starchy vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals




also in processed, refined foods:
-white flour, white rice




aim for as natural a form as possible:


-eg whole grain breads over white bread, etc

glycemic index (GI)

a scale that ranks carbohydrate-rich foods by how much they raise blood glucose levels compared to a standard food (glucose or white bread)


-50g useable carbohydrate




GI of a specific food or meal is determined primarily by the nature of the carbohydrate consumed and by other dietary factors that affect nutrient digestibility or insulin secretion

low GI

GI = 55 or less (choose most often)




breads:
-100% stone ground whole wheat, heavy mixed grain, pumpernickel




ceral:


-all bran, oat bran




grains:


-barley, pasta/noodles




other:


-sweet potato, yam, legumes (lentils, chickpeas, kidney beans, split peas)

medium GI

GI = 56-69 (choose more often)




breads:


-whole wheat, rye, pita




cereal:


-puffed wheat, oatmeal




grains:


-basmati rice, brown rice




other:


-white potato, sweet corn, popcorn, stoned wheat thins, black bean soup

high GI

GI = 70 or more (choose less often)




breads:


-white bread, kaiser roll, white bagel




cereal:


-bran flakes, corn flakes, rice krispies




grains:


-short-grain rice




other:
-baking potato, french fries, pretzels, rice cakes, soda cracker

GI in diabetes

-suggest lower GI foods may decrease nondiabetic person's risk for T2DM, CVD, age-related eye disease




in diabetes: better glycemic control, less hypoglycemic episodes, lower HbA1c




Not included on canadian nutritional labels

glycemic load

-refers to the global insulin demand induced by the diet


-takes into account the quality (GI) and quantity (amount) of carbohydrate


= the weighted average GI of individual foods multiplied by the % of dietary energy as carbohydrate




eg. white potatoes have a high GI and high GL whereas carrots have high GI but low GL

sugar

1tsp (5mL) = 4g = 16kcal




the body handles naturally occurring sugars (eg fruit, milk) the same way it handles additive sugars (eg pop, candy)


-additive sugar however lacks other nutrients

sugar: amount in diet

Health Canada: _< 25% of total daily calories should come from added sugars




WHO: _< 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars




diabetes: limit sucrose to < 10% of total daily calories

sugar substitute examples

Aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet)


-diet pop, diet foods, etc


-containes phenylalanine




Sucralose (Splenda)


-diet pop, diet foods, etc




Acesulfame K (Sunett)


-diet pop: often combined w saccharin




Saccharin (Hermesetas)


-only available as tablets, sold in pharmacies


-allowed in some food products (new)


-animal studies: carcinogen -now condsidered to have no risk to humans




Cyclamate (Sweet'N Low, Sugar Twin)


-sold in packet, tablet, liquid, granulated form


-cyclamate-containing foods, beverages cannot be sold in Canada

sugar subsitutes

-less calories than sugar


-may still have carbohydrates, fats




less effect (than sugar) on blood sugars


-"artificial sweeteners induce glucose tolerance by altering the gut microbiota"


-blood sugar levels very high (reversible upon d/c of diet)

artificial sweeteners in pregnancy

no rigorous studies




considered safe:


acesulfame


aspartame


sucralose

Stevia

sugar substitute


-fresh, dried, powdered leaves without health claims may be sold for personal culinary use


-suggested max: 4mg/kg/d

sugar alcohols

maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol


-up to 10g/d considered safe


-no significant effect on blood sugars


-sorbitol has 2.6kcal/g and is 60% as sweet as sucrose


-mannitol has 1.6kcal/g and is 60% as sweet as sucrose




fructose, sugar alcohols can cause irritable bowel

dietary fibre

indigestible type of complex carbohydrate


-thus supplies no calories

dietary fibers: recommendations

children 1-3 y/o: 19g/d




children 4-8 y/o: 25g/d




> 8y/o: 25-35g/d (lower for females, higher for males)




diabetes: 25-50g/d

soluble fiber

dissolves in water, turns into gel


-slows digestion

insoluble fiber

absorbs water, does not become gel, but becomes bulkier


-speeds food transit through stomach, intestines

sources of soluble fibre

oats


barley


flax seeds


seeds


beans


lentils


peas


some fruits (apples, oranges, pears, strawberries, blueberries)


Psyllium


some vegetables (celery, carrots)

sources of insoluble fibre

whole wheat


whole grains


wheat bran


corn bran


seeds


nuts


brown rice


fruits


vegetables (cabbage, broccoli)


root vegetable skins

foods that have 6 or greater grams of fibre/serving

100% whole wheat bread (1 slice) = 6g




Shredded Wheat (2 biscuits) = 6g




Lentils (1 cup cooked) = 7g




All Bran cereal (1/2 cup) = 10g

easy ways to increase fibre intake

-trade white for brown


-choose fruits or vegetables over juice


-avoid peeling fruits and vegetables, where possible


-eat oatmeal or 100% bran cereal for breakfast


-add barley, lentils, legumes to soups or salads

energy content of lipids

9 kcal/g

benefits of fats

-source of energy


-protects internal organs


-aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K


-temperature regulation

lipid recommendation

adults: 20-35% of daily calories

unsaturated fat

-should make up the majority of daily fat intake


-lower LDL cholesterol

monunsaturated fat

most of total daily fat should come from this


-typically liquid at room temp; turns solid when chilled


-also higher in vitamin E

sources of monounsaturated fat

-vegetable oils (olive, canola, peanut, sunflower, sesame)


-avocados


-natural peanut butter


-nuts


-seeds

polyunsaturated fats

aim for 3-10% of total daily fat


-typically liquid at room temp and when chilled


-lower cholesterol (note: no evidence to support non-dietary supplement use to prevent CVD events in pts w CV disease)




2 types:


-omega-3


-omega-6

omega-3 FAs

3 types:


-alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) -body partially converts to DHA, EPA


-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)


-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)




overal, omega-3 PUFA supplementation was not associated w lower risk of all-cause mortality, or CV events

ALA sources

body partially converts to DHA, EPA


-walnuts


-omega-3 eggs


-flaxseed


-soy products


-canola oil

DHA and EPA sources

salmon


anchovies


herring


sardines


pacific oysters


trout


mackerel




canada food guide suggests 2 servings of fatty fish weekly

omega-6 FA

Linoleic acid

linoleic acid sources

soybean oil


corn oil


safflower oil


some nuts, seeds

optimal ratio of omega-3:omega-6

-in dispute


-the general western popn consumes a higher proportion of omega-6 in processed foods (eg soybean oil)

saturated fat

-tend to be more solid at room temp


-for decades, blamed for increases in total and LDL cholesterol and TG


-systematic review disputes this

saturated fat recommendation

current guidelines: aim for _< 7% of total daily calories

sources of saturated fat

animal meat


dairy


coconut


avocado

trans-fats

aka partially-hydrogenated oils)


-increase total and LDL cholesterol


-decrease HDL


-associated w increased risk of developing T2DM

trans-fat recommendations

limit intake to < 1% of total daily calories


-this is probably achieved form naturally-occurring trans-fats in milk, meats

trans-fats sources

-many commercially baked pastries, cookies, crackers


-foods deep-fried in partially-hydrogenated oils


-stick margarines


-shortenings

protein: role

provide building blocks for cell and tissue growth and repair


-muscles, organs, skin, nails, etc


-used to make enzymes, hormones




may be broken down to provide energy

proteins: storage

may be converted to fat

protein: energy content

4.1 kcal/g

protein recommendation

10-35% of total daily calories




pregnancy: 0.88 g/kg/d


lactation: 1.05 g/kg/d




general range for adult: 0.88-1g/kg




for weight gain: up to 2g/kg max




higher intakes (1.5-2g/kg) may be needed to preserve muscle if lots of aerobic training

essential amino acids

-cannot be made by humans


-9: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine

complete vs incomplete proteins

animal proteins are complete (contain all essential aa)




plant proteins are incomplete, except quinoa (low in one or more essential aa)


-this can be overcome by mixing different plant proteins throughout the day




eg combinations:


-legumes w grains


-legumes w nuts or seeds

caffeine recommendations

max:


adults: 400mg/d


pregnancy: 300mg/d

alcohol: standard drink measures

1 standard drink = 13.5g of alcohol


= 5 oz wine = 142mL


= 1.5 oz spirits = 43 mL


= 12 oz beer = 341mL




coolers and higher alcohol beers have more alcohol than one standard drink

problems with the Canada Food Guide

-will meet nutritional needs but not necessarily calorie needs


-vitamin D needs may not be met


-calorie needs and food choices vary among individuals


-if more calories are needed, emphasize more food from the food groups to maintain macronutrient profile



Eating Frequency (EF)

does a high eating frequency assist w weight management:




2 opposing beliefs:


1. weight management


-snack foods are higher in carbohydrates; thus those who snack regularly may manage weight successfully (b/c replacing fat w carbs)


-higher EF leads to less hunger


-limiting to 3 large meals -> lethargy, less physically active


2. weight gain


-higher EF -> weight gain (more eating and excess calories)




systematic review: no association between EF and weight status



importance of breakfast

in children:

-conflicting results wrt cognitive, performance, memory, impulsivity, reasoning, attention, concentration


-associations w positive academic test scores, academic grades, school attendance




body weight


-conflicting results of adults, children


-generally most observational trials associate breakfast (in children) w a decreased risk of being overweight or obese




breakfast consumers more likely to have better overall diet quality, micronutrient and macronutrient and fiber intakes that more often align w current dietary recommendations

is it better to eat organic food?

-no evidence of any significant nutritional benefit over regular food


-no difference in nutrient profile


-unclear if eating organic lowers pesticide exposure


-EWG credible?




some studies suggest pesticides increase risk of certain cancers


-no definite link


-people exposed (eg work in agriculture) may have increased risk


-fruits/veg considered to have very small amount of pesticides


-no evidence that this increases human risk of cancer


-there is evidence that eating organic does not decrease the risk of cancer