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65 Cards in this Set

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calorie defn

unit measure of energy

1kcal is the amount of energy (heat) needed to raise the temp of 1kg of water by 1C from 15-16C at one atm

calorie on food labels

on food labels, kcal often used interchangeably w calorie but technically should be stated as Calorie or kcal

technically, 1 kcal = 1000calories = 1Calorie

small calorie: amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1g of water by 1C from 15-16C at one atm

internationally: food energy expressed as kilojoules (kj)

1 kcal = 4.184 kj


Total Energy Expenditure

= energy expended on maintaining basal metabolic rate, physical activity, thermal effect of feeding, and others

(kcal/d needed to maintain current weight)

TEE = BEE x Activity Factor/Stress Factor + TEF + EPOC

-TEF and EPOC often not used in calculation


thermic effect of food

-contribute to TEE (small)


excess post-exercise oxygen consumption

contribute to TEE (small)


Basal Energy Expenditure

= the matabolic activity necessary to sustain life (ie respiration, body temp, heart beat, etc)

-roughly equals 25kcal/kg

-makes up the majority of the total energy expenditure (TEE)

classes of nutrients









carbohydrates: roles

-turned into glucose -> major source of energy for the body

-supply glucose for CNS

-role in metabolism, cell component structure

carbohydrates: storage forms

-glycogen in muscle and liver

-excess that cannot be stored as glycogen is stored as fat

carbohydrates: energy content

4.1 calories/gram

carbohydrates: amount in diet

adults: 45-65% of total daily calories should be from carbohydrates

-higher end is for weight gain, endurance exercise

simple carbohydrates

often referred to as "sugars"

-mono and disaccharides: fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose

found in healthy foods such as:

-fruits, milk, milk products, vegetables

also in processed, refined foods:

-candy, pop, syrups, table sugar

aim for as natural a form as possible:

-eg fruit instead of fruit juice, etc

complex carbohydrates

often referred to as "starches"

found in healthy foods such as:

-legumes, starchy vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals

also in processed, refined foods:
-white flour, white rice

aim for as natural a form as possible:

-eg whole grain breads over white bread, etc

glycemic index (GI)

a scale that ranks carbohydrate-rich foods by how much they raise blood glucose levels compared to a standard food (glucose or white bread)

-50g useable carbohydrate

GI of a specific food or meal is determined primarily by the nature of the carbohydrate consumed and by other dietary factors that affect nutrient digestibility or insulin secretion

low GI

GI = 55 or less (choose most often)

-100% stone ground whole wheat, heavy mixed grain, pumpernickel


-all bran, oat bran


-barley, pasta/noodles


-sweet potato, yam, legumes (lentils, chickpeas, kidney beans, split peas)

medium GI

GI = 56-69 (choose more often)


-whole wheat, rye, pita


-puffed wheat, oatmeal


-basmati rice, brown rice


-white potato, sweet corn, popcorn, stoned wheat thins, black bean soup

high GI

GI = 70 or more (choose less often)


-white bread, kaiser roll, white bagel


-bran flakes, corn flakes, rice krispies


-short-grain rice

-baking potato, french fries, pretzels, rice cakes, soda cracker

GI in diabetes

-suggest lower GI foods may decrease nondiabetic person's risk for T2DM, CVD, age-related eye disease

in diabetes: better glycemic control, less hypoglycemic episodes, lower HbA1c

Not included on canadian nutritional labels

glycemic load

-refers to the global insulin demand induced by the diet

-takes into account the quality (GI) and quantity (amount) of carbohydrate

= the weighted average GI of individual foods multiplied by the % of dietary energy as carbohydrate

eg. white potatoes have a high GI and high GL whereas carrots have high GI but low GL


1tsp (5mL) = 4g = 16kcal

the body handles naturally occurring sugars (eg fruit, milk) the same way it handles additive sugars (eg pop, candy)

-additive sugar however lacks other nutrients

sugar: amount in diet

Health Canada: _< 25% of total daily calories should come from added sugars

WHO: _< 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars

diabetes: limit sucrose to < 10% of total daily calories

sugar substitute examples

Aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet)

-diet pop, diet foods, etc

-containes phenylalanine

Sucralose (Splenda)

-diet pop, diet foods, etc

Acesulfame K (Sunett)

-diet pop: often combined w saccharin

Saccharin (Hermesetas)

-only available as tablets, sold in pharmacies

-allowed in some food products (new)

-animal studies: carcinogen -now condsidered to have no risk to humans

Cyclamate (Sweet'N Low, Sugar Twin)

-sold in packet, tablet, liquid, granulated form

-cyclamate-containing foods, beverages cannot be sold in Canada

sugar subsitutes

-less calories than sugar

-may still have carbohydrates, fats

less effect (than sugar) on blood sugars

-"artificial sweeteners induce glucose tolerance by altering the gut microbiota"

-blood sugar levels very high (reversible upon d/c of diet)

artificial sweeteners in pregnancy

no rigorous studies

considered safe:





sugar substitute

-fresh, dried, powdered leaves without health claims may be sold for personal culinary use

-suggested max: 4mg/kg/d

sugar alcohols

maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol

-up to 10g/d considered safe

-no significant effect on blood sugars

-sorbitol has 2.6kcal/g and is 60% as sweet as sucrose

-mannitol has 1.6kcal/g and is 60% as sweet as sucrose

fructose, sugar alcohols can cause irritable bowel

dietary fibre

indigestible type of complex carbohydrate

-thus supplies no calories

dietary fibers: recommendations

children 1-3 y/o: 19g/d

children 4-8 y/o: 25g/d

> 8y/o: 25-35g/d (lower for females, higher for males)

diabetes: 25-50g/d

soluble fiber

dissolves in water, turns into gel

-slows digestion

insoluble fiber

absorbs water, does not become gel, but becomes bulkier

-speeds food transit through stomach, intestines

sources of soluble fibre



flax seeds





some fruits (apples, oranges, pears, strawberries, blueberries)


some vegetables (celery, carrots)

sources of insoluble fibre

whole wheat

whole grains

wheat bran

corn bran



brown rice


vegetables (cabbage, broccoli)

root vegetable skins

foods that have 6 or greater grams of fibre/serving

100% whole wheat bread (1 slice) = 6g

Shredded Wheat (2 biscuits) = 6g

Lentils (1 cup cooked) = 7g

All Bran cereal (1/2 cup) = 10g

easy ways to increase fibre intake

-trade white for brown

-choose fruits or vegetables over juice

-avoid peeling fruits and vegetables, where possible

-eat oatmeal or 100% bran cereal for breakfast

-add barley, lentils, legumes to soups or salads

energy content of lipids

9 kcal/g

benefits of fats

-source of energy

-protects internal organs

-aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K

-temperature regulation

lipid recommendation

adults: 20-35% of daily calories

unsaturated fat

-should make up the majority of daily fat intake

-lower LDL cholesterol

monunsaturated fat

most of total daily fat should come from this

-typically liquid at room temp; turns solid when chilled

-also higher in vitamin E

sources of monounsaturated fat

-vegetable oils (olive, canola, peanut, sunflower, sesame)


-natural peanut butter



polyunsaturated fats

aim for 3-10% of total daily fat

-typically liquid at room temp and when chilled

-lower cholesterol (note: no evidence to support non-dietary supplement use to prevent CVD events in pts w CV disease)

2 types:



omega-3 FAs

3 types:

-alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) -body partially converts to DHA, EPA

-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

overal, omega-3 PUFA supplementation was not associated w lower risk of all-cause mortality, or CV events

ALA sources

body partially converts to DHA, EPA


-omega-3 eggs


-soy products

-canola oil

DHA and EPA sources





pacific oysters



canada food guide suggests 2 servings of fatty fish weekly

omega-6 FA

Linoleic acid

linoleic acid sources

soybean oil

corn oil

safflower oil

some nuts, seeds

optimal ratio of omega-3:omega-6

-in dispute

-the general western popn consumes a higher proportion of omega-6 in processed foods (eg soybean oil)

saturated fat

-tend to be more solid at room temp

-for decades, blamed for increases in total and LDL cholesterol and TG

-systematic review disputes this

saturated fat recommendation

current guidelines: aim for _< 7% of total daily calories

sources of saturated fat

animal meat





aka partially-hydrogenated oils)

-increase total and LDL cholesterol

-decrease HDL

-associated w increased risk of developing T2DM

trans-fat recommendations

limit intake to < 1% of total daily calories

-this is probably achieved form naturally-occurring trans-fats in milk, meats

trans-fats sources

-many commercially baked pastries, cookies, crackers

-foods deep-fried in partially-hydrogenated oils

-stick margarines


protein: role

provide building blocks for cell and tissue growth and repair

-muscles, organs, skin, nails, etc

-used to make enzymes, hormones

may be broken down to provide energy

proteins: storage

may be converted to fat

protein: energy content

4.1 kcal/g

protein recommendation

10-35% of total daily calories

pregnancy: 0.88 g/kg/d

lactation: 1.05 g/kg/d

general range for adult: 0.88-1g/kg

for weight gain: up to 2g/kg max

higher intakes (1.5-2g/kg) may be needed to preserve muscle if lots of aerobic training

essential amino acids

-cannot be made by humans

-9: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine

complete vs incomplete proteins

animal proteins are complete (contain all essential aa)

plant proteins are incomplete, except quinoa (low in one or more essential aa)

-this can be overcome by mixing different plant proteins throughout the day

eg combinations:

-legumes w grains

-legumes w nuts or seeds

caffeine recommendations


adults: 400mg/d

pregnancy: 300mg/d

alcohol: standard drink measures

1 standard drink = 13.5g of alcohol

= 5 oz wine = 142mL

= 1.5 oz spirits = 43 mL

= 12 oz beer = 341mL

coolers and higher alcohol beers have more alcohol than one standard drink

problems with the Canada Food Guide

-will meet nutritional needs but not necessarily calorie needs

-vitamin D needs may not be met

-calorie needs and food choices vary among individuals

-if more calories are needed, emphasize more food from the food groups to maintain macronutrient profile

Eating Frequency (EF)

does a high eating frequency assist w weight management:

2 opposing beliefs:

1. weight management

-snack foods are higher in carbohydrates; thus those who snack regularly may manage weight successfully (b/c replacing fat w carbs)

-higher EF leads to less hunger

-limiting to 3 large meals -> lethargy, less physically active

2. weight gain

-higher EF -> weight gain (more eating and excess calories)

systematic review: no association between EF and weight status

importance of breakfast

in children:

-conflicting results wrt cognitive, performance, memory, impulsivity, reasoning, attention, concentration

-associations w positive academic test scores, academic grades, school attendance

body weight

-conflicting results of adults, children

-generally most observational trials associate breakfast (in children) w a decreased risk of being overweight or obese

breakfast consumers more likely to have better overall diet quality, micronutrient and macronutrient and fiber intakes that more often align w current dietary recommendations

is it better to eat organic food?

-no evidence of any significant nutritional benefit over regular food

-no difference in nutrient profile

-unclear if eating organic lowers pesticide exposure

-EWG credible?

some studies suggest pesticides increase risk of certain cancers

-no definite link

-people exposed (eg work in agriculture) may have increased risk

-fruits/veg considered to have very small amount of pesticides

-no evidence that this increases human risk of cancer

-there is evidence that eating organic does not decrease the risk of cancer