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92 Cards in this Set

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a congenital disturbance; limb deformity

*absence of a limb
a congenital disturbance; limb deformity

*fusion of digits
a congenital disturbance; limb deformity

*multiple digits
a congenital disturbance; limb deformity

* permanent flexure of the limbs
a cause of arthrogryposis
-from ingestion of lupines at 40-70 days of gestation
-Bluetongue virus
-Manganese deficiency
Four limb and digital deformities
(1) amelia
(2) syndactyly
(3) polydactyly
(4) arthrogryposis
Five spinal deformities
(1) kyphosis
(2) lordosis
(3) scoliosis
(4) spina bifida
(5) hemivertebra
Spinal deformity (congenital)

*dorsal curvature of the spine
Spinal deformity (congenital)

* ventral curvature of the spine
Spinal deformity (congenital)

*lateral curvature of the spine
Spina bifida
Spinal deformity (congenital)

*failure of the neural arch to close, leaving an exposed spinal cord or meninges
Spinal deformity (congenital)

*a failure of fusion in the fetal spine producing a small vertebra (short vertebral bodies)

what is it and give three examples
-abnormal growth of bone (rare)

(1) Periosteal Hyperostosis
(2) Osteogenesis imperfecta
(3) Osteopetrosis
Periosteal Hyperostosis
-osteodystrophy (congenital)

*proliferation of periosteal new bone on long bones
-inherited of pigs and animals stillborn
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
-osteodystrophy (congenital)

*defect in osteoblasts therefore defective osteoid formatio; cortex is thin and trabeculae are decreased in number
-rare, inherited disease of cattle
-osteodystrophy (congenital)

*osteoclast defect therefore bone is thick, but brittle and prone to fracture
-inherited of lambs and calves (stillborn)

*defect in the cartilage of the bones formed by endochondrial ossification; bones are short with normal width and premature closure of the growth plate
What do animal's bones with chondrodystrophy look like?
short, but normal width with premature closure of growth plates; normal histologically
What breeds is chondrodystrophy normal in?
-bull dog and pekingese
occurs when bone is damaged by any cause such as fracture, osteomyelitis, of neoplasia (trauma primarily)
common with bone fractures, neoplasia or inflammation and leads to necrosis

(aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in miniature dog breeds)
Hypertrophic osteopathy
-a circulatory disturbance

-periosteal proliferation of bone along the diaphysis of limb bones that is symmetrical
-rare and mostly in the dog
-increased vascular perfusion to the periosteum
This will often cause regression of bone formation in the case of hypertrophic osteopathy
-metabolic bone disease

*characterized by a defect in endochondrial ossification, leading to a focal area of cartilage that is thickend
Gross Lesions of osteochondrosis
-a focal area of cartilage that is thickend and projects into the metaphysis and epiphysis
-articular cartilage areas are weaker and under more stress so they may collapse and produce fissures - with flaps of cartilage breaking off and forming bone cysts
osteochondrosis dissecans
-a result of osteochondrosis
-articular cartilage areas are weaker and under more stress so they may collapse and produce fissures - with flaps of cartilage breaking off and forming SUBCHONDRAL bone cysts
Where osteochondrosis normally manifests itself.
in joint
Certain bones are more commonly affected in certain animals - where are they affected in the:
*dog=proximal humerus
*horse=distal tibia
*pigs=distal femur and distal humerus
Osteochondrosis Microscopically
blood vessels fail to grow into the hypertrophic zone of cartilage and zone persists as a focal, thickened area that does not mineralize
Tibial dyschondroplasia in birds
-similar to osteochondrosis in mammals, but affects young domestic poultry
-proximal tibia has anterolateral bowing due to mass of retained cartilage
-a lesion, not a specific disease
-holes in the bone (total amount of bone is decreased, but it in normal)
-either an increased rate of reabsorption in the bone or a decreased rate of formation
-synonymous with osteopenia
-many causes
Bones most commonly affected by osteoporosis.
-bones with large amounts of spongy or cancellous material

-vertebra, scapula, ilium, metaphysis of long bones
Gross lesions of osteoporosis.
-bones are of normal diameter and have smooth surfaces, but they are brittle and the cortex, esp near the metaphysis is thinned
-cancellous bone compresses easily
Microscopic lesions of osteoporosis.
-bone trabeculae are decreased in number and growth plates are closed or narrow
Four types of osteoporosis
(1) Nutritional osteoporosis
(2) Disuse osteoporosis
(3) senile osteoporosis
(4) corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis
Most common type of osteoporosis
nutritional - causes may include starvation, protein deficiency and deficiencies in copper, mag, zinc (not enough Ca)
Osteomalacia and Rickets
-softening of bone caused by inadequate mineralization
Difference between Osteomalacia and Rickets
Osteomalacia- adult form
Rickets-young, growing animals
Most common species for ostoemalacia/rickets
exotics and chickens

ricketts - New world monkeys and chickens are susceptible because they can not utilize dietary sources of vitamin D (can't activate in the skin)
differences between osteochondrosis and osteomalacia
Osteochondrosis - bone does not form corectly, but mineralizes properly

Osteomalacia-bone forms correctly, but does not mineralize properly

Both have similar, thick cartilage
Gross lesions of osteomalacia
soft, not brittle, and may bend and fracture easily; deformities occur in response to normal weight bearing; cortices are thin and cancellous bone is soft
cause of osteomalacia
-deficiency of vitamin D (includes intestinal malabsorption, inadequate sunlight, or secondary to chronic renal disease-failure to activate vitamin D)
-or both
What does rickets affect?
-the growth plates - they are long and irregular in width
-metaphysis is widened and collapses under weight bearing producing a mushroom shape (enlargement is most obvious at the chosochondral junction)
When vitamin D deficiency is the cause of osteomalacia, what also develops?
-hypocalcemia develops which causes hyperparathyroidism
Fibrous osteodystrophy.
excessive resorption of bone, followed by replacement with fibrous, connective tissue and some metaplastic bone
-rubber jaw
cause of fibrous osteodystrophy.
primary - neoplasm
secondary - nutritional or renal (most common)
cause of nutritional hyperparathyroidism
imbalance of Ca and P (often high P caused by animals on all meat diet)
cause of renal hyperparathyroidism
P is not excreted due to renal disease
gross signs of fibrous osteodystrophy
-bone is soft and bends easily (rubber jaw)
-head is usually affected first, then axial skeleton
-in horses, excessive amounts of fibrous tissue are produced resulting in big head
vitamin C deficiency (a cofactor in the cross-linking of collagen); this leads to inadequate osteoid formation (fewer and thinner spicules); mineralization is normal (therefore normal epiphysis)
animals affected by scurvy
primates and guinea pigs - can't synthesize vitamin C
gross lesion of scurvy
hemorrhage is the characteristic lesion
occurs with chronic ingestion of fluroide (may resemble rickets)
gross lesion of flurosis
periosteal new bone formation affecting the distal limbs
hypervitaminosis A in cats
multiple extostosies (bone on top of bone) occurring principally in the cervical vertebra, also on sternebra and joints of the long bones; result of toxic change by viatmin A in chondrocytes
What is Vit A toxic to?
Avian Perosis
disease of young, growing poultry and game birds characterized by swollen, enlarged hocks and twisting deformities of the distal tibia and proximal metatarsus
-gastrocnemius tendon often slips out of condyle and birds cant' walk
inflammation of bone and bone marrow, most often caused by bacteria (secondly fungi)
What does most osteomyelitis result in ?
bone reabsorption (lysis) with formation of cavities in the bone that fill with inflammatory exudate; necrotic bone is normally reabsorbed, but sometimes forms a sequestrum
-a result o osteomyelitis

-formed when the necrotic bone is not reabsorbed, leaving a fragment of bone that is without blood supply and can't be phagocytized
other than bone reabsorption, what is another result of an animal getting ostomyelitis?
bone proliferation (esp. if the periosteum is involved)
-can be extensive (actinomyces - Lumpy Jaw), and the deep mycoses (histoplasma, blastomyces)
most common source of osteomyelitis
direct extension from an arthritis or an inflammatory process overylying bone such as sinusitis or periodontitis
other causes of osteomyelitis (other than direct extension)
-direct trauma
-hematogenous spread (young animals due to the highly vascular arease in the metaphysis of growing bones); vertebra are favorite sites for this
Hypertrophic osteodystrophy.
characterized by a sudden onset of fever with painful swellings of the metaphysis of long bones
breeds prediposed to hypertrophic osteodystrophy
young large and giant breed dogs
principle lesion of hypertrophic osteodystrophy
-principle lesions occur at distal metaphysis of long bones
-periosteal new bone formation which is edematous
-cartilage and bone form external to this and associated with hemorrhage
-self-limiting disease (regresses in several months)
-endosteal new bone formation in the diaphysis filling the medullary cavity
-NO inflammation
who does panosteitis affect?
young, large and giant breed dgos affecting the long bones
-males affected 4:1 over females
craniomandibular osteopathy
a bilateral, irregular, osseous proliferation of the mandible, tympanic bullae and sometimes the bones of the head and limbs
who does craniomandibular osteopathy normally affect?
terrier breeds and animals under 1 year
why is craniomandibular osteopathy important for animals if it regresses in a few weeks?
-periosteal new bone formation in the mandible and tympanic bullae can interfere with mastication because TM joints are thickened and hard to move
-inflammation and fever is usally present
Pathologic fracture
fracture occurring secondary to a bone disease like neoplasia, osteomyelitis or nutritional bone disease
comminuted fracture
fracture with multiple small fragments of bone
greenstick fracture
fracture with one side of the bone being broken while the other side is bent without separation of the bone
a false joint; the ends of the fractured bones become smooth and encircled by a fibrous capsule in which the bone moves
factors which affect the repair process of a fracture
(1) blood supply
(2) amount of movement at the fracture site
(3) gap at the fracture site
(4) presence of necrotic bone
(5) presence of infection
(6) presence of muscle or other tissue fragments
a failure of a fracture to heal leaving the bone ununited
process of bone repair following a fracture
-following a fracture, a blood clot forms at the site
-this is replaced by fibrous tissue, woven bone and cartilage to form a unorganized meshwork = AKA a callus
-the primary callus is remodeled over time to form a secondary callus of mature bone
benign tumor of bone, rare
-occur in head of cattle and horses
gross lesions of osteoma and implications
tumors can be 15 cm and can cause problems with mastication and respiration
-composed of trabecular bone covered by a fibrous capsule
benign tumor of cartilage, rare
-flat bones of sheep, dogs and cats
-made of mature, hyaline cartilage
bone and cartilage benign tumor
-affect long and flat bones
where do most osteochondromas arise
the surface of bones at the growth plate
species affected by osteochondroma
-inherited in dogs and horses (animals affected just after birth and ceases with closure of growth plate)

-mature cats associated with retrovirus (mainly on flat bones)
Multilobular tumor
-most common benign bone tumor
-occurs in the bones of the skull of the dog
-tumor is slow growing and progressively malignant with metastasis occuring late in the disease
-can cause compression of the brain or expansion into the orbit or sinuses making resection difficult
-MOST common bone tumor of animals and affects large and giant breed dogs and cats
-tumor of malignant osteoblasts
-mast malignant and aggressive
where do osteosarcomas arrise?
-within the medullary cavity of the metaphysis of long bones
-most common sites in dogs: prox. humerus, distal radius, both ends of femur and tibia
-cats most common sites: equally in flat and long bones
gross lesion of osteosarcoma
-very destructive of bone, causing extensive hemorrhage, necrosis, bone lysis and periosteal proliferation
-pathologic fractures can occur
-usually does not cross the joint space
telangiectatic osteosarcoma
osteosarcoma with tumors that have blood-filled spaces
compound osteosarcoma
osteosarcoma where cartilage is also formed (in addition to bone)
second most common bone tumor of the dog
-affects large, but NOT giant breed dogs and occurs in cats and sheep
-in flat bones and nasal cavity, but also in long bones
difference between osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma
chondrosarcoma is:
-slower growing
-causes less destructive lesions with less lysis and more proliferation of bone
-will cross the joint space
-slower to metastasize