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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
defends body particularly against which the immune system defend the body
foreign substances against which the immune system defends the body
ex: transformed human cells such as tumor cells infected by viruses. human tissue as in an organ transplant, graft or incompatible blood transfusion can also be and antigen
Cells involved in the immune response
B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
NK cells
Primary WBC involved in immune response.
Derived from the stem cell
antigen sensitive cells
longed lived
3 types- B, T, and NK (natural killer cell)
B Lymphocytes
Mature and live in lymphoid tissue
Lymph nodes an tonsillar tissues
2 types of B cells-plasma and B (brain)
memory cells (duplicates itself)
Proteins molecules
5 types: IgG, IgM, IgE, IgA, and IgD
Specific antibodies are produced in response to specific antigens
Antibodies combine with antigen, forming an immune, or antigen-antibody complex
Level of specific antibody in blood is called the antibody titer.
T Lymphocytes
Develop in bone marrow steam cells and travel to thymus
T-Helper-increases function of B lymphocytes
Suppressor cells-turn off B cells
T-cytotoxic cells-specifically look for and attack virally infected cells or tumor cells
Activate macrophages and enhance the ability of to destroy antigens
Invloved in immune response to antigens
Help both B cells and T cells
Produce Cytokines called monokines
Act as antigen-presenting cells
Not able to remember ecountered antigen
Major Division of the Immune Response
1.Humoral Response

2.Cell-mediated immune response
Humoral Response
Primarily B lymphocytes and involves production of antibodies
Cell-mediated immune response
involves usually T lymphocytes or assisted by macrophages

The humoral and cell-mediated responses are interrelated.
Types of Immunity
Passive Immunity: occurs naturally or is acquired

Active Immunity: occurs naturally or is acquired
Passive Immunity
Uses antibodies produced by another person to protect and individual against infection
Antibodies from mother to fetus (naturally)
Infection of antibodies against microorganisms to patient who has not developed antibodies (acquired)
Active Immunity
Occurs naturally when a microorganism causes the disease
A person is injected with or ingests either a altered or products of microorganisms. This is called a vaccine and process called vaccination
Immunization lowers the risk of an antigen causing disease; prepares you against future attacks.
A booster is repeated exposure by vaccination
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Allergic responses, and tissue destruction occurs as a result of the immune response.
Four main types of hypersensitivity reactions
Type I Hypersensitivity
Occurs immediately after exposure to a previously encountered antigen such as pollen, latex, or penicillin
Associated IgE
Examples: hay fever, asthma, anaphylaxis.
Type II Hypersensitivity
Associated with IgG and IgM antibodies
Occurs in incompatible blood transfusions and in Rhesus (RH) incompatibility ( mother's antibodies cross placenta and destroy newborns red blood cells
Type III Hypersensitivity
Immune complexes are formed between microorganisms and antibody in the blood
Complexes leave blood and deposited in body tissues or in localized area
Neutrophils are attracted to the tissue and can cause tissue destruction
examples: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Type IV Hypersensitivity
Involves cell-mediated immune response rather then a humoral response
Put to use in the tuberculin test called purified protein derivative (PPD)
This type of hypersensitivity is responsible for the rejection of tissue grafts and transplanted organs.