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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an adenoma?
An adenoma is a benign neoplasm of glandular epithelium.
What is a papilloma?
A papilloma is a benign neoplasm of squamous or transitional cell epithelium. Some benign glandular neoplasms may also be called papillomas, depending on morphology.
What is a carcinoma?

What are the different types of carcinomas?
A carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of epithelial tissue.

Squamous cell carcinoma
Transitional cell carcinoma
What is a lipoma?
A lipoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm of adipose tissue.
What does the suffix -oma indicate?
Something ending in -oma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm.
What is a sarcoma?
A sarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal tissue.
Define anaplasia.
Anaplasia describes de-differentiated cells that are characteristic of malignant neoplasms. Pleomorphism is usually present with anaplastic cells, and they also usually have large, darkly staining nuclei.
What is the difference between atrophy and hypoplasia?

List the six causes of atrophy.
Hypoplasia is a type of atrophy, as atrophy is defined as a decrease in the number or size of cells, and hypoplasia is a decrease in the number of cells.

The seven causes of atrophy are:
1. Disuse
2. Denervation
3. Loss of nutrients
4. Pressure
5. Loss of trophic hormones
6. Senile atrophy
What is the difference between hypertrophy and hyperplasia?

List the two general categories of reasons for these conditions.
Hypertrophy is increased cell size, while hyperplasia is increased cell number.

These conditions may be the result of changes in physiologic conditions, or pathological conditions.
What is the difference between metaplasia and dysplasia?
Metaplasia is an abnormality in cell differentiation where one mature cell type is replaced by another, which looks normal but is in the wrong location. It does not increase the risk of developing cancer unless it is accompanied by dysplasia. Squamous metaplasia (ie: in the lung) is the most common type.

Dysplasia is a state of abnormal differentiation and maturation of cells. It is characterized by nuclar abnormalities, cytoplasmic abnormalities, and increased rate of cellular multiplication.
Categorize the following as hyperplasia, metaplasia, or dysplasia:
Premalignant lesion
Carcinoma in situ
Squamous intraepithelial lesion
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
All are dysplasia
What three factors are predictive of whether dysplasia will develop into cancer?
1. Grade of dysplasia
2. Duration of dysplasia
3. Site (bladder > cervix)
What distinguishes dysplasia from cancer?
Dysplasia is not invasive- it does not penetrate the basement membrane. Dysplasia can also be reversible.
What does the degree of differentiation describe, in relation to a neoplasm?
The degree of differentiation describes the degree to which the neoplasm resembles normal tissue. Benign neoplasms are usually well-differentiated and malignant neoplasms may have any degree of differentiation.
Name seven distinguishing histological features of a malignancy.
1. Hyperchromism
2. High cell density
3. Irregular mitoses
4. High nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio
5. Frequent necrosis
6. Abnormal differentiation
7. Pleomorphism
Can a neoplasm that has metastasized be benign?
Name four types of germ cell neoplasms.
1. Seminoma
2. Embryonal carcinoma
3. Choriocarcinoma
4. Teratoma
What is special about a teratoma?
A teratoma is a totipotent tumor that contains components of all three embryonic germ layers. They can be mature or immature.
What is a blastoma?
A blastoma is a pluripotent neoplasm of fetal type stem cells. It resembles an early embryonic organ occurs in childhood, and is malignant.
What are the three types of carcinomas?
1. Adenocarcinomas- from glandular epithelium
2. Transitional carcinomas- from transitional epithelium
3. Squamous carcinomas- from squamous epithelium
How are mesenchymal neoplasms named?

What are the exceptions?
Benign mesenchymal neoplasms are named with the cell type +"oma".
Malignant mesenchymal neoplasms are named with the cell type +"sarcoma".

Exceptions: lymphoma, plasmacytoma, melanoma, glioma, and astrocytoma are all malignant.
Eponyms: Hodkin's lymphoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma
Define hamartoma.
A hamartoma is a non-continuously growing abnormal tissue group in an organ. It is not technically a neoplasm because its growth does not continue excessively.
Define choristoma.
A choristoma is a non-continuously growing tissue which arises from an abnormal site. It is not technically a neoplasm because its growth does not continue excessively.
Which five cancers have the highest incidence in men in the United States?
1. Prostate
2. Lung
3. Colorectal
4. Urinary
5. Leukemia/lymphoma
Which five cancers have the highest incidence in women in the United States?
1. Breast
2. Lung
3. Colorectal
4. Uterus
5. Leukemia/lymphoma
Which cancers of non-sex-specific organs have different incidences between men and women?
Higher in men: oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, bladder, lung

Higher in women: Gallbladder, thyroid, melanoma
Name seven factors that affect cancer incidence.
1. Gender
2. Age
3. Occupation
4. Social habits
5. Sexual/childbearing history
6. Geographic location
7. Family history
Describe the clonal theory of cancer.
The clonal theory is the idea that neoplastic changes occur in a single cell (clone) in a tissue. This cell then divides extensively to create the tumor, which is generally entirely descended from this single cell.
Describe the "multifactorial origin of neoplasia".
The multifactorial origin of neoplasia describes that hits to multiple genes must occur in order for cancer to occur.
What are proto-oncogenes, c-oncogenes, and v-oncogenes?
Proto-oncogenes are genes present in normal cells for upregulation of cell growth. If they are abnormally activated by a carcinogen, they are then known as cellular oncogenes (c-oncogenes). Viral oncogenes (v-oncogenes) are similar to c-oncogenes, but are viral in origin.
Name the following genes as apoptosis regulators, DNA repair proteins, or proto-oncogenes:

abl, BRCA1/2, bcl, myc, ras, p53, Rb, wnt, src
Apoptosis regulators: Rb, p53

DNA repair: BRCA1/2

Proto-oncogenes: myc, ras, wnt, src, abl, bcl
Name five cancers associated with defects in DNA repair genes.
1. Fanconi syndrome
2. Ataxia telangiectasia
3. Xeroderma pigmentosum
4. Breast cancer
5. Bloom syndrome
Is geographic variation in cancer incidence thought to be a product of different genetic makeup or different environmental carcinogens?
Different environmental carcinogens. The role of genetics is believed to be very small.
Name two associations between cancer and polycyclic hydrocarbons.
Lung cancer in smokers.

Scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps.
Name an association between cancer and aromatic amines.
Bladder cancer in workers in the leather or aniline dye industries.
Name a fungal toxin that causes cancer and its origin.
Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin on improperly stored food, causing mutations in p53. This can act synergistically with EBV.
What common practice in Sri Lanka and India causes oral cancer?
Betel leaf chewing
What two types of cancer are associated with asbestos?
1. Malignant mesothelioma
2. Bronchogenic carcinoma (doubles likelihood, increases likelihood 10-fold when combind with smoking)
Name three industrial carcinogens associated with lung cancer.
1. Nickel
2. Chromium
3. Cadmium
With what cancer is arsenic associated?
With what cancer is PVC associated?
Angiosarcoma of the liver
Describe the two mechanisms by which RNA viruses cause cancer.
RNA viruses cause cancer by producing a DNA copy of their genome which is inserted into the host genome. Sometimes this genome contains an oncogene, and sometimes the location of genome insertion activates a c-oncogene.
Name three retroviruses that cause cancer.
1. Human T Leukemia Virus Type I (HTLV-I) causes leukemia
2. HIV may cause B cell lymphoma
3. Hepatitis C virus is thought to account for 25% of liver cancer
Name five DNA viruses that cause cancer.
1. Human papilloma virus (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) causes cervical carcinoma. Types 6 and 11 cause benign lesions.
2. Epstein-Barr virus causes Burkitt lymphoma in Africa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the far east, and possibly Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Hepatitis B virus may have a role in up to 50% of liver cancers.
4,5. Human herpesvirus 8 and cytomegalovirus are associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, and some believe that HHV8 is causal.
With what cancer is Helicobacter pylori associated?
With what cancer is Schistosoma haematobium associated?
Name some associations between hormones and neoplasms.
1. Therapeutic estrogens are associated with endometrial hyperplasia>dysplasia>carcinoma.
2. High dose oral contraceptives carry a mildly elevated risk of breast cancer.
3. Diethylstilbestrol increases risk of vaginal adenocarcinoma in girls exposed as fetuses.
4. Oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids are rarely associated with benign liver cell adenomas.
5. Prostate cancer is almost always androgen-dependent.
6. Breast cancer is frequently estrogen and/or progesterone-dependent.
On what chromosome is retinoblastoma protein encoded? Is retinoblastoma dominant or recessive, when inherited? What proportion of cases have hereditary origin?
Chromosome 13 (not 14, Cliff Scheckter).


Name five cancers with Mendelian inheritance.
1. Retinoblastoma
2. Wilm's tumor
3. Polyposis coli
4. Neurofibromatosis
5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
Name, in order, the four genes mutated or deleted in the Vogelstein model.
1. APC (adenomatous polyposis coli)
2. Kras
3. DCC (deleted in colon cancer)
4. p53
Name as many as you can of the 15 diseases associated with increased risk of malignancy due to chronic inflammation and dysplasia.
1. Down syndrome
2. Xeroderma pigmentosum
3. Gastric atrophy/pernicious anemia
4. Tuberous sclerosis
5. Cafe au lait skin patches
6. Actinic dermatitis
7. Barrett's esophagus
8. Dysphagia plus anemia/Plummer-Vinson syndrome
9. Cirrhosis
10. Ulcerative colitis
11. Paget's disease of bone
12. Immunodeficiency
13. AIDS
14. Autoimmune diseases
15. Dysplasias
Name three changes in cell structure and function that are indicative of neoplasia.
1. Appearance or loss of certain cell surface antigens: viral antigens, oncofetal antigens, unique antigens.
2. Karyotypic abnormalities: aneuploidy, polyploidy, marker chromosomes (Philadelphia chromosome), other translocations.
3. Tumor cell products: oncofetal antigens, enzymes, Igs, excess of normal hormone, ectopic hormone
Describe well-differentiated, poorly-differentiated, and anaplastic neoplasms in terms of benign or malignant, and slow growing or aggressive.
Well-differentiated: typically benign or slow-growing malignant

Poorly differentiated: malignant, aggressive

Anaplastic: Very aggressive and malignant
What is a neoplasm called with it is intraepithelial?
In situ
Describe some paraneoplastic syndromes associated with cancer.
Anemias, purpura (low platelets), myopathy, neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, gout, hormonal syndromes, pyrexia, non-infective endocarditis, cachexia