• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cells can either adapt or die. What are the two forms of death?
necrosis (death) and apoptosis (cell suicide)
Describe the difference between hypoxia and ischemia.
What is an example of ischemia?
Hypoxia is low oxygen in tissues and can be caused by ischemia.
Ischemia is insuffient blood flow to tissue.
Angina is decreased perfusion of heart through coronary vessels.
Chemical agents and drugs cause degeneration or cell death. They are examples of ______ agents.
Name the eight living and non-living "bugs" that can act like etiologic agents
viruses, rickettsiae, bacteria, fungi, helminthes, arthropods, protozoa, prions
What are the main categories of etiologic agents?
infectious agents, immunologic reactions, genetic derangements, nutritional imbalances, emotional stress and inadequate coping, chemical agents, physiologic agents and hypoxia/ischemia
Free radicals are _______, meaning they can destroy the entire cell membrane with their reactivity.
Free radical reaction with nucleic acids causes _____.
Free radicals are generated in phase _ of the detox process?
Phase 1. Also generated by: redox reactions, xanthine oxidase, free iron (Fenton rx), neutrophils, oxygen therapy, and irradiation
________ is an important type of free radical scavenger in the intestines.
Melatonin. Decreased melatonin increases generation of reactive oxygen species (superoxide, peroxide and hydroxide)
ROS can damage the cells by peroxidation of lipids, thiol containing protein damage, DNA damage and mitochondrial damage. What are the outcomes?
membrane damage
ion pump damage
impaired protein synthesis
Ca influx into the cell
A build-up of Ca in the cytosol can lead to membrane damage, decrease ATP and nucleus chromatin damage.
What are the four main enzymes that are activated by high intracellular Ca?
ATPase, phospholipase, protease, and endonuclease
Free radicals can be oxygen or carbon derived. What are the oxygen derived species?
superoxide, hydroxyl, peroxide (H2O2)
Membranes are protected from ROS by ________.
Vit E, A and beta carotene
What is another name for hydropic degeneration and what is it?
cloudy swelling
describes cellular swelling when cells are incapable of maintaining ionic and fluid homeostasis
ROS damage leads to decreased ATP and decreased Na pump activity. What is the result?
Iso-osmotic gain of water due to intracellular Na and Ca accumulation
Irreversible damage can occur with cloudy swelling. Cell degeneration releases intracellular proteins such as _, ALT, __, AP and GGT in hepatocyte cell damage.
AST, ALT, ferritin, AP and GGT released with liver damage
What enzymes are released with heart muscle degeneration?
CK-MB, LDH and troponin T
______ is used to diagnose exocrine pancreas damage.
Name 3 diseases that result from deposition of complex lipids and carbohydrates.

Which one is associated with degeneration on macula densa?
Gaucher disease
Hurler disease
Tay Sachs disease

Tay Sachs disease
What are the 3 iatrogenic accumulations that we discussed in class?

Which one can trigger Lupus-like illness?

What is hemosiderin?

Name 2 ways that too much iron may build up in the cells.
Iron pigment

1. Hemolysis of RBC's (hemolytic anemia)
2. Transfusions

Silica is a good mineral if ingested orally but deadly if inhaled.

(we don't have time to think about false statments)
Name some things that could cause necrosis.
Hyperimmune reactions
Extremes of temperature

Note: these are the same things that cause cellular injury
What is the name for cloudy swelling that continues on to cell death?
Coagulation necrosis
This type of coagulation necrosis is associated with focal areas of destruction of fat (pancreas & breast)
a. Caseous necrosis
b. Liquefaction necrosis
c. Fat necrosis
c. Fat necrosis
What is the most common pathology that leads to caseous necrosis?
This type of coagulation necrosis results from enzymatic digestion by leukocytes (phagocytosis)
a. Caseous necrosis
b. Liquefaction necrosis
c. Fat necrosis
b. Liquefaction necrosis
This type of coagulation necrosis is common in the brain and other lipid-rich tissues
a. Caseous necrosis
b. Liquefaction necrosis
c. Fat necrosis
b. Liquefaction necrosis
What is gangrene?
Death of a body part with putrification added; necrosis in an extremity (usually lower)
Match the type of gangrene (dry, wet or gas) with its description.
a. Area with little or no blood sypply and no sepsis
b. specific to Clostridium perfringens
c. bacterial infection is superimposed on coagulative necrosis; smells
a. DRY- Area with little or no blood sypply and no sepsis

b. GAS- specific to Clostridium perfringens

c. WET- bacterial infection is superimposed on coagulative necrosis; smells
Name a population that is more prone to gangrene

Apoptosis is essential for cancer cures

P53 gene: if this gene is mutated, cell cannot do apoptosis
In this pathway the mitochondria instigates apoptosis.

a. Intrinsic pathway
b. Extrinsic pathway
a. Intrinsic
In this pathway, radiation (for example) triggers apoptosis.

a. Intrinsic pathway
b. Extrinsic pathway
b. Extrinsic pathway
As a part of cloudy swelling, cellular injury induces what change in the mitochondria?

This can have what effect on the cell?
Formation of non-selective pores. This can release pro-apoptotic proteins into cytosol which results in apoptosis of cell.
What is the name for outcroppings of the cellular membrane seen in cell injury?
Membrane Blebs
What ion is released from the mitochondria and ER following cell injury? What does it do?
Ca++. It activates enzymes that damage the cellular membrane and cytoskeleton and phosphorylate proteins.
What is fatty degeneration (fatty change or steatosis)? In what tissues/cells does this occur? What is it usually caused by?
Abnormal accumulation of triglycerides.

Liver, heart, muscle, kidneys, macrophages in athersclerosis

Cellular metabolic damage and increased lipids
What condition is marked by intracellular inclusions of any protein that stains pink with H&E stain?

What are some examples?
Hyaline degeneration

Viral inclusions, deposits in alcoholic hepatocytes, keloid collagen, proximal tubule epithelial cells, amyloid, fibrinoid
What is myxomatous degeneration?

List some examples.
Increased ground substance with damage to CT fibers. Causes increased "stretchiness" to the tissue

Cystic medial necrosis (seen in Marphan syndrome)
Mitral valve prolapse (valve balloons out--> heart is less efficient --> hypertrophy of L ventricle)
Define calcification.

Are there body structures which normally calcify?
Process in which tissue or non-cellular material becomes hardened as the result of deposits of insoluble salts of calcium.

Yes, in adults.
What body structures normally calcify in adults?
Pineal, Media of large arteries, Mitral valve annulus, Tracheal cartilages
What is dystrophic (abnormal) calcification?

What are some examples?
Local calcification of non-viable, injured tissues

-Atheroma (plaque in athersclerotic vessel)
-Lymph node calcification in TB
-Psammoma bodies in certain cancers
-Damaged heart valves
Metastatic calcification occurs with elevated serum levels of _____ or _____. What can lead to such elevation?
Calcium or Phosphate

-Cancer destruction of bone
-Milk abuse
-Antacid abuse
-Parathyroid adenoma (demineralizes bone)
What is amyloid? What is is the term for its extracellular accumulation in organs & tissues? In what clinical conditions is it found?
Pathologic protein, beta pleated sheet.

Amyloidosis, that's logical...

Found in:
-B cell proliferations
-Chronic inflammation
-Chronic renal failure
-Alzheimer's disease
-Type II diabetes
-Prion disease
What is term for more extracellular fat deposition, (i.e., macroscopic)?

Where does it most often occur?
Fatty infiltration.

Most often occurs in:
-Lymph nodes
-Right heart
-Muscle (in cystic fibrosis)