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37 Cards in this Set

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most imp mediator

synthesized by basophils/ mast cells

vasodilator/ inc. vessel perm, important in anaphylactic shock, causes wheal and flare
released/ syn by basophils/mast cells/ platelets

synthesized from tryptophan

important in carcinoid syndrome
what is the fxn of serotonin?
vasodilator/ inc. vessel permeability

what are the fxns of C3a/C5a?

directly stimulate histamine release from basophils/ mast cells

important in tissue swelling and shock
what is the fxn of C3b?
opsinizing agent

neutrophils/monocytes/ macrophages have receptors
what does C5a do?
anaphylotoxin and chemotactic agent

activates cascade that lead to LOX pathway

adhesion molecule synthesis on neutrophils
what does bradykinin do?
stimulates vasodilation, inc. vessel permeability, and causes pain

also a bronchoconstrictor

cough and angioedema with ACE inhibitors
Tell me what you know about prostoglandins in general
derived from arachadonic acid (called eiconisoids)

released from phospholipids in cell membranes by activation of phospholipase A2

synthesized from linoleic acid

*most prostoglandins are vasodilators/ inc. vessel permeability
what is Thromboxane A2 (TXA2)?
PGH2 is converted by platelet-derived thromboxane synthase into TXA2

prodcut of arachadonic acid metabolism

TXB2 is the end product of its metabolism
What does TXA2 do?
vasoconstricts and stimulates platelet aggregation
How is prostacyclin (PGI2) made?
PGH2 is converted by endothelial cell dervied prostacylclin synthase into PGI2

*prostacyclin synthase is not inhibited to any significant degree by aspirin and NSAIDs
what does PGI2 do?

inhibits platelet aggregation
What does PGE2 do?
*makes skin hypersensitive to pain
*vasodilates in kidney(blocked by NSAIDS, but not by acetominophen)
*Inc. renal blood flow
*Dec. renal absorption of Na
*inc. gastric mucosa blood flow
*activates osteoclasts
*imp in fever production
*inhibits platelet aggregation/IL-1 and IL2/leukocyte aggregation
what does PGF2a do?
constricts uterine muscles

what does PGD2?
vasodilates and increases vessel permeability
what does LTB4 do?
adhesion molecule synthesis on neutrophils

chemotactic agent for neutrophils

*derived from arachodonic acid
What do LTC-D-E4 do?
bronchoconstrict and vasoconstrict

important in asthma

* derived from AA
what does nitric oxide do?
vasodilator/ increases vessel permeability

inportant in shock

*endothelial cell derived
What is the main Ig of acute inflammattion?
What is endothelin? what does it do?
potent vaosconstrictor in endothelial cells

important in shock
What are the fxns of Hageman factor XII?
activates intrinsic coagulation system

activates plasminogin in fibrolytic system

actiavates kinin system--> bradykinin prodxn

*important in the pathogenesis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
What is the main Ig in chronic inflammation?
What are the functions of IL-1?
*fever: stimulates PGE2 synthesis in anterior hypothalamus
*B Cell stimulation to synthesize Igs
*activates osteoclasts
*increases adhesion molecule synthesis by endothelial cells
*increases liver synthesis of acute phase reactants
what does interferon-y do?
activates macrophages to kill microbial pathogens

antiviral activity

induces MHC antigens

increases production of IL-2 and IL-12 by CD4-T helper cells

* produced by CD4 T helper cells
IL-2: source and fxn?
made by CD4 T helper cells

primarily a T cell growth factor

promotes B cell/ NK cell proliferation
IL-3: source and fxn?
T cells, thymic epithelial cells

stimulates proliferation of T cells, B cells, and NK cells

activates monocytes

increases hematopoiesis
IL-4: source and fxn?
activated T Cells

mainly promotes growth of B Cells

enhances expression of HLA class II antigens

switch of IgM synthesis in B cells to IgE syn in type I hypersensitivity rxns
IL-5: source and fxn?
T cells and mast cells

promotes end stage maturationof B cells into plasma cells

IgE synthesis, growth of eosinophils
IL-6: source and fxn?
T cells, monocytes/macrophages, others

promotes maturation of B and T cells

inhibits growth of fibroblasts

stimulates synthesis of acute phase reactants in liver in acute inflammation
IL-12: source and fxn?

promotes growth of CD8 T cells

differentiation of CD4 T helper cells into Th1 and Th2 classes
- imp in granuloma formation
- imp in prodxn of memory T cells

promotes interferon-y production

enhances NK activity
Interferon-alpha (IFN-a): source and fxn?
B cells and macrophages

antivral activity
IFN-B: source and fxn?

antiviral activity
Tumor Necrosis Factor-a (cahectin): source and fxn?
macrophages, T cells, and NK cells

Stimulates T cell proliferation and IL-2 production, cytotoxic to some tumor cells
TNF-B:source and fxn?
T cells

Stimulates T cell
proliferation and IL-2 production, cytotoxic to some tumor cells
What vasoactive mediator mediates vasoconstriction?


What vasoactive mediator mediates vasodilation?



What vasoactive mediator mediates Increased vascular permeability?
Nitric oxide