T And B Lymphocytes

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The origin of T and B lymphocytes is through the lymphoid progenitors derived from the pluripotent stem cells within the bone marrow. Differentiation of cells that leave the bone marrow and proceed to the thymus include T lymphocytes (TL), as mature T lymphocytes will leave the thymus. Differentiation of cells that remain within the bone marrow include B lymphocytes (BL), as mature B lymphocytes leave the bone marrow and go to the secondary lymphoid organs.
The production of BL begins in the vitelline sac, proceeds during fetal growth within the liver and is completed in the bone marrow. The B lymphocytes involved in antigen recognition are membrane immunoglobulins (Ig), which are IgM and IgD. The immunoglobulin molecules have linkage
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Double infected mice (B-, TCRα-/-) exhibited more inflammation and earlier disease, when compared to the TCRα-/- mice that had BL. The chronic colitis could exhibit minimal effects when the B-, TCRα-/- group of mice was given purified immunoglobulins, as well as colonic epithelial anti-cell autoantibodies. The regulatory role of LBREGS is apparent in studies of various animals and the different diseases associated with each study. Understanding these cells role in humans can lead to a greater understanding of autoimmune …show more content…
The proliferation of TL is induced by large amounts of IL-2 that are produced by Th1 lymphocytes. The cytokine, INF-γ is also produced by Th1 lymphocytes and serves to activate infected macrophages. The response made by Th1 lymphocytes is crucial in combating intracellular pathogens. Without a Th1 response, autoimmune rheumatic diseases and multiple sclerosis (MS) are prevalent. The T2 lymphocytes promote the production of antibodies through the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10. The IL-4 produced acts in a similar manner as the INF-γ produced by Th1 lymphocytes, as it overpowers the Th1 pathway and causes positive feedback of the Th2 pathway. Responses made by the Th2 pathway are involved in allergic diseases, by the changing of class BL immunoglobulin into IgE induced by IL-4. A new subclass of Th lymphocytes is Th17 which protects against infections caused by extracellular microorganisms. The Th17 lymphocytes cause the production of Il-22, IL-26, and various cytokines from the IL-17 family. These cytokines induce inflammation and lead to the production of more pro-inflammatory

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