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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
simple distillation
a method of separating mixtures in which vapor is immediately channeled into a condenser
fractional distillation
the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize
steam distillation
a method of separating mixtures by introducing vaporized water, which depresses the boiling points of the compounds, allowing them to evaporate at lower temperatures
vacuum distillation
a method of distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its vapor pressure causing evaporation of the most volatile liquid(s)
dynamic equilibrium
exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change
equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases at a given temperature in a closed system
total pressure
the sum of each gas's partial pressure
Dalton's law of partial pressures
the total pressure exerted by the mixture of non-reactive gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases
boiling point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor
normal boiling point
the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, 1 atm
pure liquid
generally boils at a constant temperature or over a narrow temperature range, provided the total pressure of the system remains constant
a material system made up of two or more substances which are mixed but are not combined chemically; boil over a fairly wide range
head temperature
the temperature read on the thermometer
pot temperature
will be elevated if the vapor pressure of a solution decreases
Raoult's Law
the vapor pressure of an ideal solution is directly dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of component present in the solution
mole fraction
the fraction of all molecules present in the liquid mixture that are molecules of a particular compound
ideal solution
solution in which the interactions between like molecules are the same as those between unlike molecules
liquid line
the lower line in a temperature vs. composition curve; gives the boiling points of all mixtures between two compounds
vapor line
the upper curve in a temperature vs. composition graph; the composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with the boiling liquid phase at the same temperature
fractional distillation column
an essential item used in the distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixtures into its component parts based on the differences in their volatilities
minimum-boiling azeotrope
a mixture of two or more liquids in such a way that its components cannot be altered by simple distillation; has a constant boiling point because the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid has a composition identical to that of the liquid itself
theoretical plate
a hypothetical zone or stage in which two phases, such as the liquid and vapor phases of a substance, establish equilibrium with each other
height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP)
the vertical length of a column that is necessary to obtain a separation efficiency of one theoretical plate
the condensate that remains in a column during and after distillation
temperature gradient
the difference in temperature between the top and bottom of the column
flooded column
a "plug" of liquid that may be observed within the distillation column, often at the joint between it and the stillpot
reflux ratio
the ratio of the amount of condensate returning to the stillpot and the amount of vapor removed as distillate per unit time
two will be observed in the fractional distillation of a typical binary mixture, with regard to temperature
two or more substances that do not form a solution when mixed
isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but that differ only in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space
stereoisomers that are not enantiomers
geometric isomers
a form of stereoisomerism describing the relative orientation of functional groups within a molecule
defense pheromone
volatile pheromone that usually forms a specific odor and is focused on alarm sensitivity