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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Electrophilic addition

The chain is the electrophille

CH3-CH2-CH3 addition of a Cl


Major product comes from most stable transition state.


Major product is the most stable product. requires more temperature.

Preparation of diene

Requires NBS in radical condition (UV light) to add a Br.

Very strong base will remove an H from close to Br, Br will get out and a double bond will form.

Ozonolysis of a diene

can use:

- O3

- Zn, AcOH


Bonds will break and O will be added to the extremities.

O-H bond

H bond

435 KJ/mol

~ 25KJ/mol

Amphoteric compound

Can be acid or base, depending on the condition.

pKa of sodium amide

NH3 - very strong base.


Sodium hydride

NaH - very strong base.

Alkene to alcohol.

- Hydration:

Use HBr and H2O.

- Oxymercuration:

1)Hg(OAc)2, H2O, THF or


- Hydroboration - oxidation:

1) BH3 (anti-markovnikov and syn addition).

2) H2O2, NaOH.

Alcohol to alkyl halide.

- Alcohol + SOCl2. For Me, primary and secondary alcohols. (pyridine as a solvent helps).SOCl2 adds a Cl.

- Alcohol + HCl. For tertiary alcohols.

HCl will donate an H and will form a water.

- Alcohol and PBr3.

Alcohol to alkyl tosylate.

Alcohol + TsCl results in the addition of a nucleophile afterwards.

Redox - oxidation

Methyl + O = alcohol + O = aldehyde + O = carboxyl.

Methylene + O = Alcohol + O = ketone.

Methyne + O = alcohol.

Oxidation of secondary alcohol.

Formation of ketone from alcohol.

Alcohol + (Na2Cr2O7 + H2O/H2SO4) = ketone

Jone's oxidizing reagent --> CrO3

Alcohol + CrO3 = ketone

Has mechanism.

Oxidation of primary alcohol.

Alcohol + CrO3/H2O = instable aldehyde = carboxilic acid.

Alcohol + PCC/CH2Cl2 = aldehyde.