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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe alkanes.
Alkanes are hydrocarbons with single bonds ONLY. They are also the simplest and least reactive organic compounds.
If an acyclic hydrocarbon contains N carbons, then it must contain .......... hydrogens
2N + 2
Straight-chain alkanes are also called ..........
Predict the molecular formula for 4-ethyl-5,5-dimethyldodecane:
Three commercial products composed primarily of alkanes
gasoline, natural gas, jet fuel
When one compares the densities of n-hexane and water, one finds ..........
that n-hexane is less dense than water
Why are alkanes described as hydrophobic?
Because they do not dissolve well in water.
List these in order of increasing boiling point:
2,3-dimethylbutane --> 2-methylpentane --> n-hexane
How many carbons do the primary alkane constituents of gasoline contain?
Name the two major steps in refining of crude oil into usable hydrocarbon products
1) Fractional distillation
2) Cracking
Among butane conformers, which occur at energy minima on a graph of potential energy versus dihedral angle?
gauche and anti
Describe the sources of angle strain and torsional strain present in cyclopropane
angle strain: compression of the ideal tetrahedral angle, going from 109.5 to 60.
torsional strain: occurs because of C to H bonds being eclipsed on adjacent carbons
Describe chair conformations of trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane
The higher energy chair conformation contains two axial methyl groups
List the conformations of cyclohexane in order of increasing energy
chair --> twist --> boat --> half-chair
explain knocking
causing the premature explosive combustion of certain gasoline mixtures in a car's engine
Describe the molecules of a sample of ethane gas at room temperature
molecules are rapidly interconverting between eclipsed and staggered conformations, but will, at any given time, have slightly higher numbers in staggered conformation
What types of hydrocarbons are saturated?
alkANES are saturated
What does "mechanism of a reaction" mean?
the complete, step-by-step description of exactly which bonds break, which bonds form, and the order in which these events occur
chlorination of methane is characterized by a high quantum yield. Explain what this means
many molecules of a product are formed for every photon of light which is absorbed by the reaction mixture.
if stronger bonds are formed and weaker bonds are broken, then the reaction is ..........
bond dissociation energy is the amount of energy required to break a bond ..........
the major monobrominated product which results when ethylcyclohexane is subjected to free radical bromination is ..........
a tertiary bromide
Describe the Hammond Postulate
related species that are similar in energy are also similar in structure
how many distinct monochlorinated products can result when isobutane is subjected to free radical chlorination
which of the following reactive intermediates can best be described as both nucleophilic and strongly basic?
In the first propogation step of the free radical chlorination of methane, which of the following occurs?
Cl2 dissociates
What reactive intermediate species maintains sp3 hybridization?
methyl carbanion