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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
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Identify 3 components of BAHL

Physical well-being

Sufficient sleep

A balanced diet

Not smoking or taking (illegal) drugs

Moderation in alcohol consumption

Mental well-being

‘Free’ time, work-life balance, hobbies

Emotional wellbeing

Why is physical activity valuable?

Physical benefits – fitness, healthy body weight, Inactivityis dangerous to health e.g. PA protects against CHD or osteoporosis

Personal benefits or development – enjoyment, esteem

Social benefits – friendships, teamwork, e.g. by joiningclubs, Lessanti-social behaviour in society

Emotional benefits, mental wellbeing - stress relief

Why is physical activity necessary?

Widespread obesity or CHD - due to widespread junk or fastfood consumption e.g. McDonald’s

Stressful lives e.g. due to recession or unemployment

The desire for Balanced Active Healthy Lifestyles – (BAHLs)

Better quality of life

More sedentary lifestyles - 7/10 people have sedentarylifestyle, many people do less than 1x30 mins physical activity per week

What are the physical activity recommendations for young people and adults?

Adults 30 mins 5 times a week

Moderate sub max or aerobic level witha recovery within 10 mins of stopping e.g. jogging orcycling

For children or young people 60 minutes a day or 5 or 6 or 7 x 60 mins per week

Forchildren twice a week higher impact activities e.g.skipping or jumping

Give four reasons for increasingly sedentary lifestyles in the UK

more office jobs

exercise now a choice not necessity

longer hours at work

work increasingly demanding e.g. scared of losing jobs

labour saving gadgets e.g. sit-on mowers or TV channel controls

widespread car use e.g. children driven to school

technology, computer use, shopping on-line, computer games

parents don't exercise so there is limited role modelling

children don’t play outside e.g. parents fear of allowing children to play out

More TV channels with people watching sport on TV rather than participating

Explain four barriers to participation for young people

Being in a minority group - discrimination e.g. women, disabled, ethnic minority, Religious (Asianwomen and swimming restrictions e.g. appropriate clothing)

Opportunity – (limited or no)

Don’t like exercise or choose not to - negative attitude to PA or to exercise or don’t enjoy it

Don’t like getting hot and sweaty

They do other things e.g. socialise, play computer games

No time, other commitments e.g. studying or part time job

Lack of role models - friends or family don’t participate, peer pressure not to participate, ‘no-one to go with’.

Bad school experience - limited range of activities offered atschool

Not enough money - too expensive, e.g. for memberships or kit

Poor health or injury e.g. asthma

Too tired or can’t be bothered

Risk Of being out at night or parents stop you going out at night due to danger or risk of injury

Provision – (limited or no)

Lack of equipment or suitable facilities - live in a rural e.g. no swimming pool nearby

No transport (no buses or trains etc.) can’t get there or distance from facilities or parents can’t take

Unfavourable Weather or climate - too cold or wet e.g. for activities outside

Esteem – (limited or no)

Lackof confidence, self-conscious, ‘no good at it’, ‘everyone else better than me’,poor body image

Describe factors that affect participation for those with a disability

level of ability or disability - what you are they able to do

Discrimination or unfair treatment

self-confidence or self-esteem– embarrassment, ‘social stigma’

Presence of absence of specialist or adapted facilities orequipment e.g. wheelchair access orramps

presence of absence of specialist or suitably qualified coaches

presence of absence of specialist teams or competitions e.g.limited choices of activities available

whether or not you can drive or have a car or can get to venue

limited coverage or advertising - people don’t know what is available,few role models, however positive impact of Paralympic Games - re exposure ofrole models

whether school has an inclusion policy e.g. friends don’t, so you don’t

Define physical endeavour and physical prowess

Physical prowess – skill, expertise

Physical endeavour – Effort, trying hard

What is a perceived risk?

Imagined risk, no real danger

Give five characteristics of physical recreation.

Available to all

Time flexible, no set time - you decide when to do it

Location or distance is not fixed - not (necessarily) specialist facilities

Limited or low organisation - rules few, usually no officials e.g. cycle with who you want

Can have limited orlow level of competition

Can have limited or low levels of skill or fitness -don’t need to be good

Serious training or coaching or commitment is not required

Not usually covered by media, few or no spectators, limited sponsorship or funding

Amateurs - not paid, as a hobby,taking part more important than winning

equipment can be inexpensive

What is Physical Education?

teaching or learning about skills orsports or benefits

Give 5 benefits of physical education.

Improved health - learn about healthy balanced lifestyles, reduced obesity or CHD

Improved fitness - learnsport skills

Learning about the body or nutrition or rules or tactics or benefits of exercise - gain qualifications e.g. GCSE or A Level PE

Preparation for leisure or sport – can encourage lifelong involvement participation, could encourage people to join a club

Preparation for career e.g. become PE teacher or professional performer or coach

Can gain skills – leadership, confidence, or problem solving.

Learn sportsmanship, fair play, respect for others

Qualitative benefits - improved quality of life, chance to be creative,aesthetic appreciation

Give 5 characteristics of sport.

Selective or elite

Has strict timings

Takes places in a set space with specialised facilities e.g.arena, specialist track, velodrome

It has rules is organised with officials and set teams

It is competitive with competitions

It is usually skilful and requires a high level of fitness

Training or coaching is required

There is media interest, spectators, sponsorship and funding

Some are professional so receive a wage

Winning or outcome is more important than participation – Lombardian ethic

Expensive Equipment with specialist clothing e.g. LZR swim skins

Sport science support e.g. physio, biomechanist

Chance to gain prizes, medals, fame or status

Give 3 characteristics of Outdoor Recreation

For enjoyment or fun

In own time - participant chooses, leisure time or hobby

Organised or lead by self or non-specialists

Give 3 characteristics of Outdoor Education

For learning

In school or college time, extracurricular

Organised or lead by school or OEd centre or specialists

Give 4 reasons for limited participation in Outdoor Education

Lack of staff expertise of qualifications

Cost of or lack of transport

Insufficient funding to employ specialiststaff

Lack of funding for: using artificial facilities or specialist equipment Teachers reluctant to take on responsibility e.g. media highlightingtragedies

Distance from facilities e.g. schools in cities so difficult to get tonatural environment

Not enough time - pressure on curriculum

Not compulsory part of NC - not seen as important by some teachers orHead Teachers

Staff put off by paperwork or risk assessment procedures

Give 4 benefits of outdoor education

Physical benefits or skills – e.g. learning camp craft or first aid or map reading, learning survival techniques.

Personal benefits or skills – develop confidence ordiscipline. They can learn about themselves, overcome fears, and challenge themselves. They can gain leadership or thinking skills or problem solving.

Social benefits or skills – socialisation, teamwork,communication and trust.

Preparation for career.They can gain awards or qualifications e.g. D of E

Learn respect for outdoors. Learn about nature or natural environment or conservation

Give an example of a surviving ethnic pastime and give 4 reasons for their continued existence.

Cheeserolling, shrovestide – mob football, highland games

They are unique to an area, increasing local pride

They take place annually and so peoplemake a point of going

They are occasional and so interest is maintained

They are festival occasions, they bringpeople together

Traditional and is part of their heritage

Location in rural areas and so cultural identity is maintained

Religious beliefs which require participation

They attract tourism or visitors, bringingmoney or media interest.


How did nineteenth century public schools promote and organise games.

high levels of funding available

specialist facilities

Professional Coaches or assistant masters coaching

support of teachers or head teachers

belief that sports and games were valuable for developing character

time for practice - games or sports afternoons

'house system - inter-house games

rules to games

role models who inspired younger boys

inter-school matches or annual sports days

ex pupils who:promoted games at university, spread games throughout Empire, founded NGBs

ex pupils who became: teachers, politicians, army officers, vicars or powerful community members


Describe the traditional amateur approach to sport in the UK (Give 3)

taking part for enjoyment ‘for the love of the game’

no training or coaching

Organisation Unreliable. NGBs administered by part time or inexperienced enthusiasts

linked to: C19th public schools ‘gentlemen’ (amateurs)

linked to how life should be lived (as well as how sport should be played)

Why is the amateur approach being replaced by a more professional approach (Give 3)

because a more reliable or effective system was needed

increased win ethic or Lombardian ethic

to be a realistic contender on world stage

impactor influence of sponsors or media or golden triangle, sport now ‘big business’

to increase participation

Describe the background of sport in the USA.

Young or powerful country

native Indians as indigenous population

Relatively large population, approx. 300million, including 50 states – large pool for talent ID.

sports adopted, adapted (American football adapted from rugby)

Sports invented (basketball and ice hockey) – new sports for a new society

British sports marginalised due to isolation policy

The big four’ sports dominate e.g. American football, baseball, icehockey and basketball

Sports reflect frontier spirit – they are tough and need courage.

Lombardian ethic - win at all costs - ‘winning isn’t the most important thing, it’s the only thing’

Evidence of deviance of match fixing due toimportance of winning.

Sport is a vehicle for achieving American Dream or going from ‘Rags to Riches’ - individuals can become wealthy or celebrity status through sport

Land of opportunity, land of the free

Mixture of different cultures and religions –US is democratic

Explain capitalism and commercialism of sport in the USA

Sport part of golden triangle – it is linked with sponsorship and media (media influences rules or timings)

Sport reflects capitalism, it has high levels of advertising and Sponsorship.

Performers as billboards

TV rights

Advertising breaks

Teams run as franchises or for private enterprise (profit)

Professional sport dominates and has very high status

Explain the economic system that influences sport in the USA

Win (at allcosts) ethic or Lombardian ethic dominates –

games are high scoring

Sport is a media product - media controls aspects

Evidence of deviance in sport - drug taking ormatch fixing

Sport allows individuals to achieve the American Dream or to go from ‘rags to riches’

Sport is about making profit, it is ‘big business’

Sport has high levels of sponsorship and advertising (cost of advertising during Super Bowl)

Teams are privately owned, teams or players arebought and sold, teams as franchises

Give the origins of American Football

Adapted from rugby

Originally called ‘grid iron’

Developed in ‘Ivy League’ universities

It reflected ‘frontier spirit’

It was dangerous with some deaths, banned by some unis due to danger

Give the reasons for violence in American football

Frontier spirit, reflects life of early settlers

Rules allow or encourage violence. It is a contact sport

Crowd wants violence or the importance of winning

Protective clothing de-humanises opponents

Pseudo military language (e.g. platoons, 'bomb,' sack opposition)

Specialists within team (e.g. specialist defensive team players such as line backers of defensive tacklers)

Game traditionally violent, some deaths in early days, in early days president intervened to clean up game

Frustration with officials or opponents, provocation or abuse, lack of punishment or deterrent

Give 3 factors that make American football a contemporary success

It is attractive to spectators and so attractive to sponsors or TV

It is part of the ‘golden triangle’

Large payment from TV Rights

Commercial breaks ‘part of game’ so game designed for TV

Teams run as franchises, teams ‘bought and sold’

Super Bowl has huge commercial opportunities,Super Bowl has worldwide coverage.

Why does sport have such high status in Australia?


Australia adopted British sports and keen to beat England in contemporary sport - ‘PommieBashing’

Plenty of space. E.g. genuine wilderness, outback, Beaches, mountains and desert

Climate favourable - Better weather than UK - it rains less than in UK, Outdoor sport all year round - few cancellations of sporting fixtures due to poor weather.


Government Funding for sport - government uses their support as vote catcher

Comparatively Healthy economy - Australians happy to spend on sport - Sport boosts economy

Sport gives identity or ‘image’ to Australia

Sporting success gains Australia international recognition -‘shop window’ effect E.g. Sydney Olympics, left country with legacy


Australia now a multi-cultural society E.g. commitment to disability sport. But- discrimination towards aboriginal or indigenous people

Australia a health conscious society, contemporary obesity problem

Sport and physical activity fashionable, ’cool’ to be active or sporty

Sport frontpage news every day, School, Uni sport on TV in some states - Large % of TVtime devoted to sport

Success of national teams E.g. Netball world champions (2007), RugbyUnion (‘91 & ‘99 World Cup winners)

Role Models - Recognition of sporting stars or heroes E.g. ShaneWarne, Kathy Freeman, Adam Scott

AIS (AustralianInstitute of Sport) - World class provision for elite performers

Schools - high status of school sport - Initiatives in Australianschools E.g. SEPEP, fundamental motor skills

What are the origins of Aussie Rules?

It was invented in the late 1850s, in Melbourne, in Victoria

It was invented by Tom Wills as winter training game for cricketers

Probably the combination of aboriginal (leaping) game and Rugby (union)

Give 5 factors that have made Aussie rules a contemporary success.

It is a successful media product, it generates media interest

Impact of commercialism, links with ‘golden triangle

Taught and played in schools with interschool games

There are effective pathway programmes, a structured route from school to elite level

Game appeals to all, played by men and women and by all bodytypes

Australia keen to have ‘own’ game so have national competitions(at elite levels

Some players have changed from other games (e.g. from Rugby union to Aussie Rules)

Opportunities for players to gain financial rewards or celebrity status

Availability of space, access to cricket pitches in winter and a favourable climate

What are the 3 sources for funding of sport in the UK?

Public funding from... government, exchequer, local authority or taxes


UK Sport or Sport England distribute lottery funding

NGBs provide funding received from HCCs

Private funding e.g. sponsorship from companies or TV rights

Prize or appearance money from advertisers or advertising or ticket sales

Voluntary funding e.g. from donations or scholarships or bursaries, Sports Aid grants.

Describe the foundation, participation and performance stage on the performance pyramid.


School children, learning basic skills, mass participation.


School Or club or team involvement, extra-curricular.


District Or county or regional or 'academy' involvement, emphasis on competition orwinning, competitions, regular training and coaching.

How can esteem affect position on the pyramid?

High esteem is likely to encourage participation

high esteem likely to result in higher placement on pyramid

high esteem needed to reach higher levels on pyramid

low esteem likely to limit or restrict participation

low esteem likely to result in lower placement on pyramid

low esteem means you won’t reach higher levels

levels of esteem can be affected by stereotyping or discrimination

discrimination experienced by young or ethnic minorities can affect esteem

How does UK sport promote excellence?

Distributes national lottery funding

Invests in World Class Programme

Promotes ethical behaviour - runs anti-doping programme e.g 100%ME

Bids for or attracts major sporting events e.g. Olympics 2012 – getting London 2012

Does research into training

Works with or supports NGBs

Supports elite performers in higher education.

Helping increase efficiency of administration of sport

Performance Lifestyle Advice (PLA), helping performers develop an appropriate lifestyle

How do national institutions (EIS) promote excellence?

E.g. Bisham Abbey, Loughborough Uni, sheffield eis.

Scientific support e.g. nutrition, physiotherapy, strength & conditioning

high quality coaching or facilities

Performance lifestyle advice (PLA) or career advice.

Performance analysis

How do NGB's promote excellence?

talent ID

work of performance directors

building national facility

whole sport plans

does research into training

Give 5 roles of Sport England

They work to increase participation by promoting community sport

Do campaigns such as ‘This girlcan’.

Supports government targets e.g. supports PESSCL strategy.

Distributes lottery,investing in community sport.

Promotes volunteering, coaching, and officiating to get people involved.

Targets priority groups e.g. disabled or elderly

Works with other organisations e.g. NGBs, UK Sport)

Responsible for funding elite performers in some sports (e.g. netball)

Provides information e.g. on coaching, facilities, sports development

Protects Community playing fields

Give 5 roles of the BOA

Promotes Olympic Games

Involved with organising London 2012

Works on Olympic bids

Works with official sponsors for 2012 Games

Helps select Team GB and provides workshops or training for Team GB(e.g. on motivation)

Provide pre-Games training camps

Works With IOC or UK Sport

Give 3 roles of the IOC

Owns rights to Olympic Rings

Works with host country with commercial deals

Chooses host city

Selects Olympic sports

Give 4 reasons why sports performers use drugs

To improve performance: To get to ‘the top’

Desire to win - 'win at all costs' orLombardian attitude:

Fear of losing, For fame or money

Physiological or physical reasons: To train harder, to build muscle e.g.anabolic steroids, HGH, Rh EPO or diuretics, To mask orovercome injury - ‘race’ between drug users and anti-doping agencies

Psychological or mental reasons: The importance of mind readiness’. e.g. Betablockers to steady nerves

Pressure:From coach

Other Reasons:

Due to belief that others are taking drugs (Lance Armstrong)

Poor role modelling

Think will get away with it

Perceived Weaknesses in testing procedures

Lack of educationabout dangers e.g. coughmedicine or nasal spray

Give 5 consequences of taking drugs

Enhanced Performance – so can gain medals or prizes

Chance to gain fame or fortune e.g. performerwho have become rich famous as a result of drug taking.

Can get bans, disqualified,fined or stripped of medals (Dwain Chambers).

Loss ofsponsorship (Floyd Landis)

Poor role modelling, e.g. performer whohas (allegedly) been ‘busted’

Physiological Damage - danger to body or health e.g. liverdisorders, heart disease

Lower life expectancy or death e.g.Florence Griffith-Joyner (Flo-Jo) WR for 100m and 200m (set 1988).

Psychological Damage - damage to mind e.g. moodswings, increased aggression (roid rage).

Cheating, unfair advantage so the laws or ethics of sport broken

Some drugs against law of land e.g. cocaine(Adrian Mutu)

False or meaningless results

bad name or publicity for sport or performers, sport ruined, interest in sport lowered e.g. China’s swim team of 1990s

Other athletes ‘forced’ to take drugs

Only way to ‘stay good enough’ e.g. where drugtaking considered to be common (Tour de France, 1990’s)

False accusations of clean athletes - ruined careers of wrongly accused athletes e.g.Diane Modahl or Greg Rusedski

Give 3 solutions to the problem of drugs in sport.

Stricter Punishments or bans e.g. Olympicor life bans, return of medals

Role models to encourage drugs free sport

More research into dangers e.g. into possibledangers of gene doping

Legalise Performance enhancing drugs - have two competitions (drugs Olympics andnon-drugs Olympics)


Stricter or out of season

More money orresearch into testing

Work of Worldanti-doping agency (WADA) e.g. standardisedoping policy

BUT – problems for athletes when they must be constantly available


Performers into dangers e.g. role models

At schools or clubs

Describe sportsmanship

fair play

playing to the written and unwritten rules

gentlemanly behaviour or conduct

showing respect for others or to opponent

Describe Gamesmanship

Bending rules to gain unfair advantage

Is less serious or more acceptable than deviance

Is increasingly coached

Is something such as time wasting or sledging

Describe Deviance

Breaking the rules or cheating

Requires stricter punishment than gamesmanship

Is usually not coached

Is more likely in higher level sport

Is something such as drug taking or match fixing or deliberate dangerous fouls

Give 4 advantages of modern tech in sport

Fairer Outcome, fewer disputes, clarification of goals or tries or whether ball in or out.

video playback - third or TV umpire


Hawk –Eye entertainment or interest for crowds


Gum shields, Cricket head gear


Clothing, equipment design such as footwear

Improved Performance, skill or fitness

Modern footballs allow better swing or curve

Streamlined cycling helmets or bikes

Better Understanding of rules

refs being ‘miked up’ for all to hear


use of video or other playback equipment

To Enhance training:

tyre towing, elastic cord, diet, supplements

To Aid recovery, recover from injury

Compression wear, Ice baths

Inclusion Or participation

carbon fibre blades wheelchairs

Purity Of sport enhanced

use of drug testing equipment or methods

Give 4 disadvantages of modern tech in sport

Cheating e.g. drugs in sport

Disruption to ‘game’ e.g.time taken for video playback

Injury e.g. from bladed boots, 3G pitch?

Violence e.g. rugby shoulder pads which may make some players feel invincible

Unfair advantage, expensive, e.g. Djokovic uses an environmental chamber.

Technology not equally available e.g. high tech bikes

Loss of traditional ethic, win at all costs rather than participation for enjoyment e.g. use of high tech equipment at junior level

What is the golden triangle?

Sport, sponsorship & media form the ‘golden triangle’.

The UK has ’adopted’ golden triangle from USA. The triangle reflects capitalism and is about making profit.

More media coverage = more sponsorship e.g. England netball for whom TV coverage has increased sponsorship

Give 2 disadvantages of the golden triangle.

Deviance for sport, due to increased pressure to win(Lombardianism) e.g. matchfixing allegations in cricket (England v Pakistan at Lords 2010)

Certain sports dominate, low profile get no media attention so get little sponsorship e.g. volleyball.

Exploitation - fame ‘too much’ for some performers committed to demands of sponsors

Give 5 positive impacts of the media on sport

The media can inspire ‘feel good factor’ or nation building e.g. London 2012 coverage

The media promotes minority sports e.g. handball or beach volleyball

Positive role models created e.g.copying sportsmanship

Wealth achieved, with opportunities both on and off ‘field of play’. E.g. appearances on TV quiz shows.

Media careers as broadcasters e.g.Clare Balding, Gary Neville, and Jamie Redknapp.

Media brings money to sport. It attracts sponsorship e.g. money to LTA from BBC forWimbledon coverage.

Money can be used to increase participation

Media makes sport more entertaining e.g. half time at Super Bowl or Hawk-Eye.

Media makes sport fairer via video playback / TMO / goal line technology

Media influences changes some aspects of sport in positive way, to speed up action. e.g. rules or scheduling or timings or structure or Twenty20

Impact of Sky e.g. 24hr coverage, huge variety of sports

Give 5 negative impacts of the media on sport

Some would argue there’s too much sport on TV. Thisleads to increased likelihood of corruption e.g. match fixing or Lance Armstrong

Too much pressure on performers

Too much wealth when too young e.g. Footballers – Ballotelli.

Copying bad behaviour of negative role models e.g. bad language or lifestyle choices

Coverage poorly managed - disproportionately in favour of one sport e.g.football vs netball.

Comments out of context, prejudices encouraged e.g. England v Germany football

Media intrusion e.g. requirement to give press interviews immediately after a match

Loss of privacy

Performers required to perform more than is safe e.g. too soon after surgery

Focus on trivial, sensational or negative aspects

Pay per view means not everyone can see all events e.g. BT sport.

Media influences some aspects of sport in negative way e.g. rules or scheduling

Events scheduled at bad times for athletes e.g. marathons in heat of day

Minority sports still get limited coverage

Intrusive lights or cameras for TMOs may put performers off or disrupt game

Give 4 positive impacts of the media on BAHL

Documentaries can lead to increased participation

This results in a lower cost on NHS

Improved health e.g. Change4Lifeor Embarrassing Bodies

Raise awareness of the dangers of smoking

Adverts shown for exercise DVDs e.g.Davina McCall

Improved diet or body weight e.g.Weight Watchers

Role Models who are or ‘get healthy’ or ‘lose weight ‘ e.g. Gregg Wallace (Masterchef)

Give 4 negative impacts of the media on BAHL

People watch rather than take part, resulting in reduced participation.More ‘armchair spectators’

This means they are less healthy, potentially more disease

Increased costs to NHS e.g. CHD or obesity

Negative influence of advertising e.g. junk food, CocaCola, Macdonald’s in Olympic Park

Negative behaviour in films e.g.drug taking or alcohol abuse or smoking

Negative impact of social networking e.g. reinforcement of potentially negative behaviour

Give 4 advantages of sponsorship

Sponsorship is the funding of individuals or teams or events

To increase brand awareness and to make profit

Sponsoring sport gives healthy or ‘cool’ image to sport e.g.Nike sponsor Rooney and Federer.

Powerful sports may have some control over sponsors e.g. Premiershipfootball

Sponsorship allows full-time training

Lack of sponsorship or money = limited progress

Sport sponsorship has been a relatively inexpensive form of advertising

Give 2 disadvantages of sponsorship

Bad image for sport due to being linked to fast food products. E.g. McDonalds sponsoring the Olympics

Pressure of sponsor’s demands - appearances at events, photo shoots etc.

Give 4 causes of violence for players and spectators.

Frustration or anger

With match officials e.g. decision not gone their way

Score or result e.g. losing in a big game

‘Cheating’ or rule breakingor gamesmanship e.g. ‘diving’ or ‘sledging’ or bad tackle.

Importance of result (pressure to win or Lombardianism)

high arousal or “pumped”

Position in league or cup or level of competition

E.g. if World Cup match or Cup Final

Provocation or abuse orchanting or retaliation or intimidation

By opponents, from team mates or from crowd. E.g. retaliating against a bad tackle.

Lack of or limited punishment or deterrent e.g. getting away with a bad tackle and notreceiving a card.

Rivalry (local derby or a traditional fixture)

Pre-match media hype, irresponsible coverage by media in lead up to game E.g. Sheffield Wednesday, Sheffield United, Man Uand Liverpool, Man U and Leeds.

Causes of violence: Players


Sticks or clubs e.g. asin hockey or ice hockey or baseball.

Nature of game / tradition of violence

Rules might allow certain levels of violence. Body checking as part ofgame. E.g. ice hockey

Media or crowd might expect or want a ‘hard’ or physical ‘contest’

Kit or equipment

That de-humanises or protects e.g.American Football.

Anger management problems oremotion of certain players

E.g. Luis Suarez biting Branislav Ivanovic

Drugs, steroids

Causes of violence:Spectators

Alcohol or drugs

People lose their ‘inhibitions’ or become more brave


Poor spectator provision

Poor policing or stewarding.

Hooligans at football

Organised violence or fights

Limited alternative outlets for energy

Mass culture.

Peer pressure

Loss of individual identify or diminished responsibility (within crowd)/ pack mentality

Give 3 solutions to violence for players

Change or adapt rules

More severe Punishments or bans e.g. 10-match ban for Suarez


Emphasis on fair play

Emphasise harm that can be done by violence

More or better qualified officials /more authority for officials

Technology e.g. TMO / DVD playback

For fairer outcomes as used in Rugby Union

Use of Psychology e.g.calming down /anger or stress management

Give 3 solutions to violence for spectators

Stricter deterrents or punishments e.g. remove season tickets or passports

Control of or ban alcohol

Searches at gates

Early kick off times before pubs open long, later opening time not directly after game.

Improve spectator facilities

all-seater’ stadia

Separation of fans

Home and away fans to leave ground separately

Use of CCTV or other security measures

To spot or record incidents / to record events (for potential evidence)

Police, stewards, security

Better training or better relationships with spectators

Sharing of information between police forces or areas within country orbetween countries

Promotion of event as (family) entertainment

Family sections in stadia

Provision of entertainment (for children). E.g. mascots,festivals, ‘fun days’

Responsible Media coverage

Give the background of the Olympic games

Baron Pierre deCoubertin was the founder

The Ancient Olympic Games were influential as were the Cotswold Games and the Robert Dover Games.

The Much Wenlock Games inspired De Coubertin.

The games ethic of Public Schools also impressed DeCoubertin (e.g. De Coubertin visited Rugby School and was inspired by what he saw.

Give the aims philosophy of the modern Olympic Movement.

De Coubertin wanted to promote friendship and sportsmanship.

Early Modern Games were strictly amateur – taking part ‘for the love of it’

Taking part was considered to be more important than winning

Appreciation of physical endeavour (effort) or physical prowess (skill) ’ joy fromeffort’

Educating young people, linking sport with education or culture

Role Modelling, showing a good example

Give reasons for commercialism of the Olympic Games

Amateurism no longer working or to get rid of ‘shamateurism’

Some countries better funded than others resulting in unfairness

Olympic Games Were in financial difficulty - financial pressure for hosts (pre ’84) (MontrealGames 1976 were a financial disaster) so other countries became increasingly reluctant to host.

After Montreal IOC accepted need for commercialism

Impact or work of Peter Uberroth

What was the impact of commercialism of the Olympic

Olympic Games is now for full-time athletes, resulting in higher standards

The Olympic Partner programme established, companies became partners. These companies benefiting sponsoring Games by exposure and orprofit

Financial benefit or profit from hosting Games

Nation building for hosts or participants ‘shop window effect’

Improved facilities, Private company investmentin building of Olympic facilities

Media ‘control of sport - impact of media e.g. linked to timing of events

What were the benefits to society of the UK hosting the Olympics

Legacy - upgraded amenities for area, regeneration in Stratford e.g. housing from ‘Olympicvillage’ for new residential community and offices

Improved Transport system, upgraded road and rail network e.g. ‘Olympic Javelin’ railway

Tourism increased- new business attracted, boost to economy,

Employment Opportunities e.g. building in years leading up to Games

Volunteering opportunities- chance to be a ‘Games Maker’. Roles include: warehouse work,giving directions or collection and delivery

Increased Educational attainment due to Olympic focus, reduced crime rates

Increased social integration - brings people together

Reduced Discrimination due to high profile of Paralympics

Increased Participation in sport and physical activity due to campaigns.

Impact of role models inspire e.g. Jess Ennis, Mo Farah

More balanced, active and healthy lifestyles or improved health or fitness

Improved NHS provision

Shop window effect or nation building - puts UK or London‘on the map’

Feel good’ factor - increased national pride

What were the drawbacks to society of the UK hosting the Olympics

Overspending and debt, costs have risen considerably since bid, especially in economic crisis.

High council taxbills - locals suffer financially

Higher house or rent prices

Harder for local people to buy in area, possible discrimination against local people

Media or entrepreneurs buying into area

Limited long term job opportunities, employment only leading up to and during Games

Only London really benefits, limited benefit for regional or outlying areas - possible N vS divide

Possible emphasis on nationalism which could lead to discrimination

Disruption for locals, travelling community possibly evicted from area or increased pollution

Increased Terrorist threat - Cost of protecting against potential terrorism

What were the benefits to sport of the UK hosting the Games

Increased funding for or investment in sport leading up to Games

Higher profile for sport due to media attention

Legacy of facilities - world class facilities for London e.g. swimming or divingfacilities

Upgraded training facilities elsewhere e.g. Aldershot’s athletics training camp

National institutes focus on or improve their provision e.g. EIS, Bisham Abbey

Improved or worldclass sport science support

Improved or worldclass sports medicine back up

Improved elite performance in UK

Host countries often win more medals than ‘usual’ – London 2012 best medals haul for years.

Organisation ofBritish sport improved e.g. efficiency of NGBs UK becomes more attractive forother international sporting events e.g. World Cup

What are the disadvantages to sport of the UK hosting the Games

Emphasis on elitism or excellence, rather than participation and BAHLs

Only Olympic sports get publicity so still lack of publicity for minority sports e.g.netball

Funding tocertain sports or aspects of sport likely to be withdrawn after 2010 e.g.basketball

Danger of ‘white elephant’ or wasted facilities - left with facilities that are expensive to maintain or are underused

Possible removal of athletics track (West Ham won bid to have stadium)

Sport will suffer if there are scandals e.g.drug scandals

How can the Olympic games be used as a vehicle for Nation Building

Nation Building can:

Increase Prestige Or status of a country

Increase national pride

Country gains publicity or is ‘put on map’ or on world stage or is showcased

Nation Building For host country (e.g. China)

·Nation Buildingfor the country of successful visiting athletes (e.g. Ethiopia)

So increased tourism

What is the shop window effect?

Those in the host country‘look out’ and feel appeased or get ‘feel good’ factor e.g. or Sydney 2000

How can the Olympics be used as a political tool?

Olympic Games can be used as a political tool, where sporting success reflects political success

Sport can be usedas a vehicle for achieving increased political stability e.g. links betweensport and politics e.g. Munich OGs / Berlin 1936 (Hitler and Jesse Owens)

In China the government controls and funds much of sport - China has centralised system

Beijing Olympics(2008) were a ‘coming out party’ for China

Beijing Olympics(2008) were an opportunity for China to show its economic status

Beijing Olympics(2008) were an opportunity for China to conceal human rights issues

Countries can sometimes hide behind a façade, a false picture can be created

What are the four roles of the media?