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15 Cards in this Set

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Analgesiaduring labor can reduce or prevent potentially adverse stressresponses to the pain of labor, including:

postpartum depression

Parenteralopioids for labor analgesia work primarily by sedation and, except athigh doses, result in _________ of maternal pain.

minimal reduction

Side effects of opioids include maternal nausea and ______________ in both the mother and newborn.

respiratory depression

Theroutine use of _____________ in conjunction with opioids should beavoided.

promethazine

Placentaltransfer of a drug between mother and fetus is governed by thecharacteristics of the drug, including its:

1. drug size,


2. lipid solubility, and


3. ionization;


4. maternal blood levels and


5. uterine blood flow;


6. placental circulation; and the f


7. etal circulation.

Continuousneuraxial (epidural or spinal) analgesia is the ______________ formof intrapartum pain relief currently available.

most effective

Spinalopioids as part of a CSE (Combined Spinal Epidural) technique provide excellent analgesia duringmuch of the ______________ stage of labor

first

Most patients need ___________ with epidural local anesthetics later in labor and during the __________ stage.

additional analgesia, second

Spinal opioids decrease or avoid the risks of local anesthetic toxicity, ___________ spinal anesthesia, and _______ block.

high, motor

Sideeffects and complications of neuraxial anesthesia include:

1. hypotension,


2. local anesthetic toxicity,


3. total spinal anesthesia,


4. neurologic injury, and


5. spinal headache.

Epiduralanalgesia does not increase the rate of ____________ but mayincrease oxytocin use and the rate of instrument-assisted vaginaldeliveries.

cesarean delivery

The duration of the second stage is increased by:

15 to 30 minutes.

Epiduralanalgesia is associated with an increased rate of maternal __________ during labor

fever

Generalanesthesia is used for less than _____ of elective and roughly _______ ofemergent cesarean deliveries.

5%, 25%

General anesthesia can be associated with __________________________, causes of anesthesia-related maternal mortality.

failed intubation and aspiration