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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Connect Pelvic Bones
Support Uterus and Ovaries
Female Pelvis Function
a. weight bearing
b. pathway of fetal head
c. Protect reproduction organs
Linea Terminalis
imaginary line dividing pelvis
a. False(greater)- above
b. True(lesser)- UT, ovaries, and adnx
Mullerian Ducts Form
UT, Fallopian Tubes, Vagina
(Does not include ovaries)
T Shaped Uterus
Introduce saline in Endocavity
Ovarian Torsion
a. Large Uterus
b. Absent Color and Spectral Doppler
c. Possible Arterial w/out Venous Flow
d. Possible Adnx Mass
Polycystic Ovarain Syndrome
Clinical Signs
(Stein-Leventhal Syndrome)
a. infertility
b. obesity
c. amenorrhea
d. hirsuitism
PCOS Sonographic Findings
a. ALWAYS bilateral
b. string of pearls
c. normal ovarian size
ghosting artifact
anterior body wall
A. Perineal
B. Coccygeus
C. levantor ani muscles
a. resist gravity
b. reist prolapse
a. anterior
b. posterior
c. Lateral
Parts of Uterus
a. Fundus or Dome
b. Body or Corpus
c. Isthmus or LUS
d. Cervix
Cervix Functions
a. alkaline secretion for sperm penetration
b. acts as a sphincter during pregnancy
Cervical Parts
a. Internal OS- Cx to Uterus
b. External OS- Cx to Vaginal
Layers of Uterus
a. Perimetrium- serosal (outer)
b. Myometrium- mid muscular
c. Endo- inner mucous layer
Calcutate Ovarian Volume
Length X Width X A/P X.523
Parts of Fallopian Tubes
a. Interstitial/Intramural- w/in cornua of Uterus
b. Istmus- medial portian
c. Ampulla- Longest portion
*site of fertilization
d. Infundibulum- trumpet end
e. Fimbria- finger like projections
Vesicouterine Space
anterior cul-de-sac
Anterior to Uterus
Posterior to Bladder
Rectouterine Space
Posterior Cul-de-sac
or Pouch of Douglas
Posterior to Uterus and Cervix and Anterior to Rectum
Ovarian Arteries
Gonadal Arteries
Uterine Artery Doppler
High Resistance Flow
Gonadal Veins (RT and LT)
Rt drains into IVC
Lt drains into LT Renal Venal then into IVC
Estradiol Levels Falls
Hypothalamus produces Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone( GnRH)
from Hypothalamus, signals anterior pituary gland to secrete gonadotropins (FSH and LH)
stimulate follicle growth
Theca cells(inside follicles) produce estrogen
from Theca Cells inside Ovarian Follicles; stimulate endometrial growth
muturation of follicle; Progesterone peaks after ovulation
Corpus Luteal
hCG secrets progesterone to prevent endo shedding; w/out inplantation-progesterine decreases and sloughing of uterus lining
Follicular Phase
>11mm follicle
Day 14
Progesterone surges after
Possible free fluid in
post cul de sac
Luteal Phase
Corpus Luteal- crater left by expulsion of ovum, becomes filled with yellowish fatty cell
(secretes progesterone- prepares endo for inplantaion)
Day 15-18
Luteal Phase Sonographic Findings
a. irregular cystic mass with thick borders
b. Doppler findings hypervascular
c. Echogenic structure representing thrombus
Ovarian Phases
a. Follicular- 1-14
b. Ovulation - 14
c. Luteal- 15-28
Uterine Phase
a. Menstrual- 1-5
b. Proliferative- 6-14
c. Secretory- 15-28
Menstrual Phase
a. 1-5
b. thick, echogenic endo
c. Thin endo @ menses
d. Max diam- 2mm
Proliferative Phase
a. 6-14
b. Theca Cells- Estrogen secreted X follicles (FSH)
c. Hypoechoic area around endo (early)
d. Thick, isoechoic (late)
Secretory Phase
a. 15-28
b. Progesterone surges after ovulation
c. endo becomes edematous and spongy
c. no fertilization- autolysis(dies n ruptures) sloughing of endo
d. Max Diam- 18mm
heavy bleeding
irregular, heavy bleeding
Painful bleeding
No mestrual
- Colpos
- Metro
Post Menopausal
a. myometrium may have calcified arcuate arteries
b. decrease estrogen- thin endo
c. Max endo- 4-5mm
Hormone Replacement Therapy
a. endo up to 8mm
b. Estrogen phase- 10-12mm
Progesterone Phase- decrease endo
Causes of Post Menopausal Bleeding
a. Exogenous Estrogen Admin
b. Endo Atropthy(most common reason w/o hormones
c. Endo carcinoma
d. Cervical CA
T Shaped Uterus
Failure of Formation
Complete Agenesis- absence of vag, ut, cx, and tubes
Partial- Unicornuate Uterus and single tube
Failure of Fusion
UT Didelphys- Duplication of UT, CX, and VAG
***Bicurnuate UT- single vag, one or two cervix, duplicate uterus(Most common anomaly)
Failure of Dissolution
median septum fails to dissolve

Single vav, cx, and UT with and intrauterine septum
Failure of Dissappearance
Gartners Duct Cyst- arises from caudal remnants of the Mesonephric(Wolfian) Duct

ant, lat wall of Vagina
Congenital Vaginal Anomalies
a. Vaginal Atresia- no vag
b. Vaginal Septa- Septations w/in vag
c. Duplication- two vaginas
Leiomyoma Locations
a. Submucous- beneath endo
b. Intramural/Interstitial- w/in endo
c. Pedunculation
Myoma Symptoms
a. Menometrorrhagia
b. Freq urination
c. Enlarge UT
d. Pelvic Pain
e. Infertility
Myoma Sono Findings
a. well circumscribed hypoechoic mass
b. Lobulated w/increased attenuation
c. Whirled internal
a. Venetian Blind Shadow
b. Lg UT
c. Myometrial Cysts
d. Inhomogenous
Endo Carcinoma
a. Postmenopausal Bleeding
b. Pain
c. Increase UT size
d. Fluid in endo
e. Endo echoes
Endo Hyperplasia
a. abn uterine bleeding

Caused X estogen hormone replacement, PCOD, obesity
Endo Hyperplasia Sono Findings
smooth borders
Premenopausal- Endo>14mm
Postmenopausal- Endo>5mm
Acute Hemorrhage Ovarian Cyst
a. Posterior Acoustic Enhancement
b. Solid Hyperechoic Mass
Benign Serous Tumors(Ovarian)
a. Unilateral Mostly
b. sharp marginals
c. anechoic
d. thin septations
Malignany Serous Tumors(Ovarian)
a. Bilateral (50%)
b. Multilocular
c. echogenic material
d. ascites
Benign Mucinous Tumors
a. Thick and numerous septations
b. Up to 50 cms
c. Uni-lateral
Malignanct Mucinous Tumors
a. papillary
b. up to 30 cm
c, unilateral
d. echogenic material
Transitional Cell Tumors
Brenner Tumor
a. benign
b. unilateral
c. hypoechoic solid mass
d. small cystic spaces
e. calcs present
f. greater than 2cm
Clear Cell Tumor
a. always malignant
b. unilateral
c. up to 30 cms
d. complex solid mass
Germ Cell Tumors
mostly benign
derived from germ cells of embryonic gonads
Benign Cystic Teratoma
Germ Cell Tumor
asymtomatic, incidental finding

cystic adnx mass with calcs
diffuse echogenic