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105 Cards in this Set

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what are the 5 external forces of change
External Forces
1. Organizations must effectively manage diversity if they are to receive maximum contribution and commitment from employees.
2. Organizations are increasingly using technology to improve productivity and competitiveness. This is probably one of the biggest forces for change.
3. Increasing consumer sophistication is requiring organizations to deliver higher value in their products and services.
4. Social and political events can create substantial change.
5. Organizational crises may result from accidents, problems that build over time, acts of nature, or criminal acts.
what are the 2 internal forces of change
Internal Forces
1. Human resource problems/prospects stem from worker's perceptions about how they are treated at work and the match between individual and organization needs and desires.
2. Excessive interpersonal conflict is a sign that change is needed.
what are the 3 types of change
adaptive, innovative and radically innovative
_________________ is lowest in complexity, cost, and uncertainty. It involves reimplementation of a change in the same organizational unit at a later time or imitation of a similar change by a different unit.
Adaptive change
__________fall midway on the complexity, cost, and uncertainty continuum. Unfamiliarity, and thus greater uncertainty, make fear of change a problem with innovative changes.
Innovative changes
At the high end of the continuum of complexity, cost, and uncertainty are ___________ changes. These are the most difficult to implement and are the most threatening.
radically innovative
three-stage model of planned change which explained how to initiate, manage, and stabilize the change process. The stages include unfreezing, changing, and refreezing.
Lewin's Change Model
__________stage is to create the motivation to change. Individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with the new behaviors and attitudes.
unfreezing
__________stage involves learning new information, models, or perspectives to help employees learn new preferred concepts or points of view
The changing
Change is stabilized during ________ by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into normal procedures.
refreezing
Why People Resist Change in the Workplace
an individual's predisposition toward change,
surprise and fear of the unknown,
a climate of mistrust,
fear of failure, loss of status and/or job security,
peer pressure,
disruption of cultural traditions and/or group relationships,
personality conflicts,
lack of tact and/or poor timing, nonreinforcing reward systems, and past success
Research suggests that ____________ is a key way to overcome resistance to change.
participation
___________ are related to resistance to change.
Personality characteristics
People with ____________ are more open to change.
high resilience
High ________ and ________ were negatively associated with resistance to change.
self-efficacy; an internal locus of control
Managers should keep in mind four key conclusions as Alternative Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Change
Managers should keep in mind four key conclusions:
a. An organization must be ready for change before it can be effective.
b. Do not assume people are consciously resisting change.
c. Radical innovative change is more likely to succeed when middle-level managers are highly involved in the change process.
d. Employees' perceptions or interpretations of change significantly affect resistance.
There are four major types of stressors:
individual (directly associated with job duties), group (caused by group dynamics and managerial behavior), organizational (e.g., organizational culture), and extraorganizational (factors outside the organization).
We receive four types of social support from others:
a. esteem (feelings of acceptance and respect despite inadequacies)
b. informational (helping to define, understand, and cope with problems)
c. social companionship (spending time with others in leisure activities)
d. instrumental (providing financial aid, material resources, or needed services)
Research indicates that _________reduced the probability of illness following exposure to stress, and increased the probability of interpreting stressors as positive and controllable. ______individuals experience less stress, burnout, and psychological distress and higher job satisfaction than those low in _________
hardiness
Five dimensions of a holistic wellness approach are:
self-responsibility, nutritional awareness, stress reduction and relaxation, physical fitness, and environmental sensitivity.
name the 5 "soft" generic influence tactics
a. rational persuasion (trying to convince someone with reason, logic or facts),
b. inspirational appeals (building enthusiasm by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values),
c. consultation (getting others to participate in planning, decision making, or changes),
d. ingratiation (being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery),
e. personal appeals (referring to friendship or loyalty when making a request),
name the 4 "hard" generic influence tactics
f. exchange (making express or implied promises and trading favors),
g. coalition tactics (getting others to support your effort to persuade someone),
h. pressure (demanding compliance our using intimidation or threats), and
i. legitimating tactics (basing a request on one’s authority or right).
The three possible influence outcomes are:
commitment, compliance, and resistance. Commitment is the best possible outcome, because the person remains intrinsically motivated.
The tactics of ______, _________, ________ and _________ appeals are more likely to generate commitment. Commitment is also more likely when the influence attempt involves something important and enjoyable, and is based on a friendly relationship.
consultation, strong rational persuasion, and inspirational
_____________ can slightly improve performance appraisal results.
Ingratiating tactics
The ______ tactics are viewed as fair and the ________ tactics as unfair.
“soft”; “hard”
French and Raven proposed that power arises from five different bases, what are they?
reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent power.
Managers should strive for _______ power while avoiding _______ power.
socialized; personalized
______, ______, ______ and _______ tend to produce compliance. Compliant employees require frequent re-administrations of power to remain motivated.
Reward, coercive, and negative legitimate power
Advocates claim employee ________increases employee satisfaction, commitment and performance.
participation
Political behavior is triggered by uncertainty. Five sources of uncertainty are:
unclear objectives, vague performance measures, ill-defined decision processes, strong individual or group competition, and any type of change.
Political maneuvering can occur at three different levels:
individual, coalition, and network.
are loose associations of individuals seeking social support for their general self-interests.
Networks
__________are people oriented while ________ are issue oriented.
Networks; coalitions
Researchers have identified eight political tactics. Listed in descending order of occurrence, they are:
attacking or blaming others, using information as a political tool, creating a favorable image, developing a base of support, praising others, forming power coalitions with strong allies, associating with influential people, and creating obligations.
__________ are more likely to engage in impression management than others.
High self-monitors
There are three categories of favorable impression management tactics:
Four motives for looking bad in the employer’s eyes include avoidance, to obtain concrete rewards, exit, and power.
The four common denominators of all organizations are:
coordination of effort, a common goal, division of labor, and a hierarchy of authority.
Organization charts depict four basic dimensions of organizational structure:
the hierarchy of authority, the division of labor, spans of control, and line and staff positions.
Open systems are capable of self-correction, adaptation, and growth due to characteristics such as
homeostasis and feedback control.
______________try to promote new ideas and information by scanning their external environments, transferring new knowledge throughout the organization, reducing barriers to sharing information, and changing behavior.
try to promote new ideas and information by scanning their external environments, transferring new knowledge throughout the organization, reducing barriers to sharing information, and changing behavior.
__________organizations tend to be too slow and inflexible.
Old-style, pyramid-shaped
_________organizations embrace total quality management (TQM) principles, are dedicated to continuous improvement and learning, and are structured around teams.
New-style organizations
___________ are built around core processes directed toward satisfying customers. Training in both technical and teamwork skills is a top priority. The horizontal organization has a team orientation. Constant reassignment to different teams creates interpersonal conflict and personal stress. Lines of authority blur
The horizontal organization
____________consists of a relatively small executive group, very few middle managers, and numerous operating personnel. Lateral transfers are common, and the potential for alienation between executives and operating personnel is great.
The hourglass organization
__________are geographically dispersed. Many so-called ________ are really a network of several organizations linked together contractually and electronically. At the center of the network is an entrepreneur.
Virtual organizations
the four ways to assess organizational effectiveness are:
goal accomplishment, resource acquisition, internal processes, and strategic constituencies satisfaction.
In the _______ approach, key organizational results or outputs are compared with previously states objectives. Effectiveness is measured by how well the organization meets or exceeds its goals.
goal accomplishment
According to the_____________ approach an organization is effective if it acquires necessary factors of production (e.g., raw materials or labor).
resource acquisition
The __________ criterion deems the organization effective if information flows smoothly and if employee loyalty, commitment, job satisfaction, and trust predominate.
internal processes
The ____________ satisfaction approach considers the happiness of key ______________ to be the appropriate effectiveness criterion.
strategic constituencies
Decision making tends to be ___________ in mechanistic organizations and ___________ in organic organizations
centralized; decentralized
___________ organizations tend to be successful in relatively stable and certain environments, while _______ones tend to be successful in unstable and uncertain environments.
Mechanistic; organic
Effective organizations with either low- or high-complexity technology tended to have an _________ structure, while effective organizations with medium-complexity technology tended to have a _________structure.
organic; mechanistic
According to the strategic choice model, an organization's structure is determined largely by
a dominant coalition of top-management strategists.
The "exchange" influence tactic involves getting others to support your effort to persuade someone to your point of view.
A) True
B) False
B) False
Conclusions from a meta-analysis suggest ingratiation (making the boss feel good) can slightly improve your performance appraisal results and make your boss like you significantly more.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Personalized power is directed at helping oneself for the sake of personal aggrandizement.
A) True
B) False
A) True
According to French and Raven, an individual is using expert power when his or her charismatic personality is the reason for the compliance of others.
A) True
B) False
B) False
According to your textbook, "participation" is the highest degree of empowerment.
A) True
B) False
B) False
The __________ influence tactic involves getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.
A) rational persuasion
B) coalition
C) inspirational appeal
D) ingratiating
E) consultation
E) consultation
__________ power is directed at helping others.
A) Socialized
B) Expert
C) Referent
D) Personalized
E) Legitimate
A) Socialized
Threats of punishment and actual punishment give an individual __________ power over others.
A) reward
B) coercive
C) legitimate
D) expert
E) referent
B) coercive
Along the continuum of employee empowerment, __________ occurs when managers and followers jointly make decisions.
A) delegation
B) consultation
C) internalization
D) participation
E) domination
D) participation
Political behaviour and maneuvering is often triggered by uncertainty. Which of the following is not a source of uncertainty that may trigger such actions?
A) Unclear measures of performance.
B) Any change taking place in the organization.
C) High levels of competition among individuals or groups.
D) Organizational objectives that are not clearly spelled out.
E) All of these are sources of uncertainty that may trigger political behaviour and maneuvering.
E) All of these are sources of uncertainty that may trigger political behaviour and maneuvering
Hardiness refers to a personality trait that allows a person to neutralize stress by perceptually or behaviorally transform negative stressors into positive challenges.
A) True
B) False
A) True
According to the typology of change, innovative change involves introducing a practice that is new to the industry.
A) True
B) False
B) False
In Lewin's change model, the "unfreezing" stage involves getting employees to become dissatisfied with the old way of doing things.
A) True
B) False
A) True
A company's strategic plan outlines the organization's long-term direction and actions necessary to achieve planned results.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Research in the area of resistance to change revealed that high levels of self esteem were negatively associated with resistance to change.
A) True
B) False
B) False
Which of the following was not mentioned as a stress reduction technique in the discussion in the text?
A) Biofeedback
B) Hypnotism
C) Holistic Wellness
D) Cognitive Restructuring
E) Both answers B and C
B) Hypnotism
Which of the following is not a reason why employees resist change?
A) Past failures
B) Fear of failure
C) Peer pressure
D) Surprise or fear of the unknown
E) Past success
A) Past failures
__________ is a commonly used method to overcome resistance to change in situations where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power.
A) Education/communication
B) Facilitation/support
C) Participation/involvement
D) Explicit/implicit coercion
E) Manipulation/co-optation
D) Explicit/implicit coercion
According to the Model of Occupational Stress, __________ is an example of a group-level stressor.
A) Harassment
B) Role conflict
C) Work overload
D) Technology
E) Family
A) Harassment
A(n) __________ coping strategy consists of using methods such as relaxation, meditation, medication, or exercise to manage stress.
A) escape
B) symptom management
C) control
D) hardiness
E) buffering
B) symptom management
Generally speaking, the more narrow the span of control in an organization, the higher the organization's administrative costs.
A) True
B) False
A) True
The modular structure overlays a vertical and with a horizontal structure which results in two command structures – functional and divisional.
A) True
B) False
B) False
A learning organization is one that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and that changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Whether or not an organization meets or exceeds its goals is one way to judge the effectiveness of an organization.
A) True
B) False
A) True
One of the benefits of innovation identified in the Model of Innovation was improving on services and products the organization already has.
A) True
B) False
A) True
__________ refers to the idea that each employee should report to only one manager.
A) Span of control
B) The Unity of command principle
C) Emergent leadership
D) Bureaucracy
E) A New-style organization
B) The Unity of command principle
Which of the following is identified as an early warning sign of decline in the text?
A) Effective communication if decreased.
B) Goals are not clear and decision benchmarks are not present.
C) Administrative procedures become a burden and are cumbersome.
D) Answer selections A and C only.
E) All of these are early warning signs of decline.
E) All of these are early warning signs of decline.
A synonym for the term "innovation" in the context of organizational innovation would be:
A) invention.
B) creativity.
C) integration.
D) All of the above are correct.
E) None of the above are correct.
E) None of the above are correct.
When measuring organizational effectiveness, the __________ approach is appropriate when powerful stakeholders can significantly benefit or harm the organization.
A) internal processes
B) goal accomplishment
C) stakeholder audit
D) strategic constituencies
E) resource acquisition
D) strategic constituencies
Which of the following is a characteristic of mechanistic organizations?
A) Top-down communication patterns.
B) Democratic decision making.
C) Low emphasis on obedience and loyalty.
D) Broad task definitions.
E) A clear link between an individual's contribution and the organization's purpose.
A) Top-down communication patterns.
A simple change in an existing product would be a _____ innovation.
A) prototypical
B) disruptive
C) accidental
D) incremental
D) incremental
_________ is usually associated with incremental innovation.
A) ambidextrous improvement
B) discontinuous improvement
C) continuous improvement
D) disruptive improvemen
C) continuous improvement
The two types of innovations are incremental and ______.
A) ambidextrous
B) breakthrough
C) continuous
D) strategic
B) breakthrough
The Apple iPod is an example of a ______ innovation, while iTunes is an example of a _____ innovation.
A) product, service
B) continuous, breakthrough
C) breakthrough, continuous
D) disruptive, routine
A) product, service
Six Sigma is ________ approach.
A) strategic control
B) continuous improvement
C) operational control
D) breakthrough improvement
B) continuous improvement
According to Clayton Christensen, __________ are incremental innovations that improve product or process performance.
A) restraining technologies
B) enabling technologies
C) sustaining technologies
D) disruptive technologies
C) sustaining technologies
According to Clayton Christensen, ________ revolutionize industries and create new ones.
A) sustaining technologies
B) disruptive technologies
C) enabling technologies
D) restraining technologies
B) disruptive technologies
Apple's innovation with iPod and iTunes is a _______ innovation.
A) breakthrough innovation
B) continuous
C) incremental
D) strategic
A) breakthrough innovation
Which kind of innovation disrupts?
A) Incremental
B) Continuous
C) Breakthrough
D) Strategic
C) Breakthrough
_________ is the creation of new products or processes through the development of new knowledge or from new combinations of existing knowledge.
A) Invention
B) Continuous improvement
C) Innovation
D) Incremental innovation
A) Invention
The initial commercialization of invention by producing and selling a new product, service, or process is best known as which one of the following? .
A) Incremental innovation
B) Innovation
C) Continuous improvement
D) Invention
B) Innovation
The Japanese term kaizen is also known as _______.
A) total quality management
B) innovation
C) continuous improvement
D) Six Sigma
C) continuous improvement
Which of the following companies is noted for effectively utilizing CCC21?
A) Toyota
B) Boeing
C) Honeywell
D) Polaroid
A) Toyota
There are a variety of essential elements that can lead an organization to meaningful incremental innovation. Which one of the following is not considered to be one of these elements?
A) Define quality and customer value
B) Develop a customer orientation
C) Develop strong organizational culture
D) Adopt an error-free attitude
C) Develop strong organizational culture
Successful innovations are noted for having certain defining characteristics. Which one of the following would not be classed as one of these characteristics?
A) Moderately new to the marketplace
B) Based on untested technology
C) Meets customers needs
D) Saves money for users
B) Based on untested technology
Which one of the following would be not be considered a way that identifies how the ides for innovation may have originated?
A) Existing practices
B) Solution spotting
C) Trend following
D) Random events
A) Existing practices
____________ is/are a term used to characterize breakthrough innovation that shakes up or revolutionizes industries with which they are associated even though they often come from different origins or industry settings.
A) Incremental innovation
B) Milestone reviews
C) Disruptive innovation
D) Strategic thrusts
C) Disruptive innovation
Behavioral and psychological characteristics that are usually associated with successful entrepreneurs include all but which one of the following?
A) A strong desire to achieve
B) An external locus of control
C) Tolerance for ambiguity and stress
D) Orientation toward goals and opportunities
B) An external locus of control
_________________ is the money provided to the venture that must be repaid at some point in time.
A) Equity financing
B) Equity funding
C) Debt financing
D) Debt reaffirmation
C) Debt financing
According to Dr. Gordon Pinchot, which one of the following is not considered a factor that needs to be present in organizations wishing to encourage intrapreneurship?
A) Tolerance of risk, failure, and mistakes
B) Multiple options available
C) Close ties to competitors
D) Freedom from turfness
C) Close ties to competitors