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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Carbs include (3)

1. Sugars

2. Starches

3. Fibers

Proteins and fats are used for



Simple sugars containing 3-7 carbons

3 examples of monosaccharides

1. Glucose (6 carbon hexagon circulating in bloodstream)

2. Fructose (fruit sugars)

3. Galactose (milk sugars)


2 simple sugars


Disacchiride, 1 molecule of glucose + 1 molecule of galactose (mammalian milk sugar)


3-10 monosaccharides together,often of plant origin polymers, difficult to digest.

Fructoligosaccharides (FOS)

Have the potential to be used as a probiotic and help with supporting healthy microflora + improving gut health


An animal starch made up of glucose molecules that is a rapid energy source (provides glucose). It is stored in the liver or muscle.

Specific complex carbohydrates provide...

Specific energy building blocks (polymers) to the body.

Excess CHO in the diet can lead to

Glycogen storage and contribute to obesity

Glycogen storage and contribute to obesity

Sugar polymers include (2)

1. Fiber

2. Starch

Soluble carbs (2)

1. Starches

2. Sugars

Insoluble fiber (5)

1. Pectin

2. Lignin

3. Cellulose

4. Mucilage

5. Gum

Common starch sources in companion animal diets (6)

1. Corn

2. Wheat

3. Barley

4. Rice

5. Potato

6. Oats

Fiber is needed for (3)

1. Improvement of bowel function

2. Increase bulk of diet

3. Increase water content of the intestine

Fiber can be converted to

Energy sources such as glucose

Fiber benefits for companion animals (2)

1. Can help regulate blood sugar levels needed in diabetic patients

2. Helps downplay harmful intestinal bacteria which may reduce intestinal health

Bacterial fermentation in large intestine in dogs/cats

Can produce short chain of fatty acid which is used by cells in colon + intestine as an energy source.

Heat used during the canning process of pet food assists with

CHO digestibility by melting starches and adding some water.

4 functions of CHO

1. Immediate energy + energy stores

2. Provide carbon skeletons for a variety of body compounds (DNA, chondroitin sulfate l, non-essential amino acids)

3. Source of heat

4. Protein sparing effect

3 reasons why cats have limited ability to utilize CHO for energy

1. Low activity level if intestinal sucrase + lactases

2. Lack hepatic enzyme needed to utilize simple sugars

3. Very little amylase


Lipids that are solid at room temperature


Lipids that are liquid at room temperature.


3 fatty acid + 1 glycerol. Simple lipids that are the building blocks for dietary fats/lipids.

Fat solubility

Insoluble in water but soluble in other solvents

Compound lipids

I.e. lipoproteins. Carry fat in the bloodstream.

Saturated fatty acid vs. Monounsaturated vs. Polyunsaturated

1. Saturated fatty acid = 0 double bonds in the chemical structure

2. Monounsaturated fatty acid = 1 double bond

3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid = 2+ double bonds

Fatty acids with increased double bonds

Make the molecule unstable and are more prone to rancidity.

Function of fats (7)

1. Serve as primary energy sources

2. Supply essential fatty acids

3. Facilitate digestion

4. Act as carriers for fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)

5. Improve palatability of a diet

6. Organ insulators which protect from trauma + heat loss

7. Provides insulation around myelinsted nerves which speeds nerve impulses

Best energy source + why

Fats. Provide 8.5 kcal/gram energy versus protein/carb at 3.5 kcal/gram.

2 Functions of phospholipids + glycolipids

1. Help with nutrient transport across cell membrane

2. Provides structural components of cell wall

Short Chain vs. Long chain fatty acids

Short chain = 1-8 carbon atoms in length

Long chain = 12-20 (most common for companion animal nutrition)

Essential fatty acids

Polyunsaturated + long chain, and cannot be synthesized by dogs, cats or other mammals. Include 3s (alphalinolenic) and 6s (linoleic + arachidonic)

3 essential fatty acids for cats

1. Linoleic

2. Alpha-linolenic

3. Arachidonic

2 essential fatty acids for dogs

1. Linoleic (can be converted to arachidonic acid)

2. Alpha-linolenic

Arachidonic acid

Found only in animal fat source. An omega 6 in poultry.

6 sources of Linoleic acid (Omega 6s)

1. Corn

2. Safflower oil

3. Soybean oil

4. Chicken fat

5. Pork fat

6. Beef + butter (low)

2 sources of omega 3s

1. Fish oils

2. Pork + chicken fat (much lower)

3 Therapeutic applications of EFAs

1. Omega 3s can be used to lessen inflammation

2. More arachidonic acid from a supplement cab provide better coat + skin (water loss lessened)

3. Often used therapeutically for integument cases

EFA deficiencies can lead to (3)

1. Alopecia

2. Anemia

3. Hepatic lipidosis

EFA functions (3)

1. Important for kidney + reproductive systems

2. Prostaglandin production

3. Cell membrane production


Organic compounds necessary for normal physical function that must be present in the diet as most cannot be synthesized. Do not produce energy.

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamins A, D, E and K. They're stored in lipid deposits in all tissues.

Fat soluble vitamin absorption

Requires bile salts + fat clusters to be absorbed. Absorption occurs in wall of duodenum + ileum.

The unused metabolites of fat soluble vitamins

Excreted in the bile via the feces

General rule of fat soluble vitamins

Have more potential for toxicity due to a greater storage capacity.

Water soluble vitamins

B complex and Vitamin C. Poorly stored so deficiency states are more common, therefore frequent intake is critical (usually higher amount ths fat soluble)

Water-soluble vitamins absorption + excess

Absorbed passively via the small intestine. Excess is lost in the urinary tract.

Vitamin A forms (3)

1. Retinol

2. Retinal (formation of rhodopsin)

3. Retinoic acid

Vitamin A functions (4)

1. Needed for vision

2. Bone growth

3. Skin health

4. Reproductive function (ex. Spermatogenesis)


Retinal is needed for formation. This pigment is needed to help eye adapt to changes in light intensity. Deficiency = night blindness.

Vitamin A - Skin health

Needed for mucus producing cells of the skin to protect against infection + helps the skin cells to differentiate. Deficiency = no mucus barrier, skin lacks complete development.

Vitamin A — Carotenoids

Provitamin A, comes from plant cells. Converted in the intestine via B carotene 15, 15'-dioxygenase to active Vitamin A.

Vitamin A in cats

Cats require preformed active vitamin A source (animal source) in their diet, as they do not have the enzyme needed to convert provitamin A.

Vitamin A deficiency (4)

1. Impaired growth

2. Reproductive failure

3. Night blindness

4. Skin disease

Vitamin A excess (2)

1. Skeletal abnormalities

2. Hyperesthesia

4 sources of Vitamin A

1. Fish liver oils

2. Milk

3. Liver

4. Egg yolk

Vitamin D

A group of sterol compounds needed for Ca and P regulation.

Vitamin D3 + 2 sources

Cholecalciferol, the provitamin D form used by dogs and cats.

Acquired through:

1. Synthesis in the skin upon UV light exposure (limited ability)

2. Animal source direct in diet (required)

Vitamin D at intestine, bone and kidney sites

There is an increased mobilization of Calcium and Phosphorus to allow for normal bone mineralization.

Vitamin D deficiency (3)

1. Rickets (growing animals)

2. Osteomalacia (adults)

3. Bone demineralization

Vitamin D excess (2)

1. Hypercalcemia

2. Soft tissue calcification


In growing young animals, there is bone malformation due to insufficient Ca and P levels, leading to bowed legs and thickened joints.


In adults, bones soften, and bone demineralization + fracture can result. Can affect vertebra

5 vitamin D sources

1. Liver

2. Fish

3. Egg yolk

4. Sunlight

5. Pet foods fortified with vitamin D

Antioxidants functions (6)

1. Vitamin C + E stabilize free radical molecules

2. Restore damaged tissues

3. Protect immune function

4. Increase cognitive function in senior dogs

5. Natural alternative to preservatives

6. Increase palatability

Vitamin E

4 active tocopherols. Alpha-tocopherol is found in pet food. Stored in the liver.

Vitamin E functions

It is an antioxidant, meaning it protects Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) from oxidative damage, as their harm can contribute to malfunction of cells.

Vitamin E protects

1. PUFAs

2. Vitamin A

3. Selenium

4. Some amino acids

—From degradation.

Pansteatitis (+ signs)

Yellow Fat Disease. Caused by high unsaturated fat and low quality vitamin E. Cats being fed exclusively fish are prone to it. Reluctant to move, swollen fat, fever, anorexia, lethargy, hyperesthesia of throat and abdomen.

4 Sources of Vitamin E

1. Wheat germ

2. Corn

3. Soybean oils

4. Sunflower oils

Vitamin K + function

Known as quinones. Role in synthesis of prothrombin + other clotting factors. Low dietary requirement in dogs and cats as synthesis in LI is sufficient.

3 Forms of vitamin K

1. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) — from plants

2. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) — made by bacteria in the gut

3. Vitamin K3 (menadione) — synthetic + most active form

Vitamin K deficiency (2)

1. Increased clotting time

2. Risk of bleeding

4 Sources of vitamin K

1. Green leafy plants (spinach, kale, cabbage, cauliflower)

2. Liver

3. Egg

4. Fish meals

Vitamin K is commonly used to treat...

Rat poisoning cases.