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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What percent of adults in the U.S. are overweight or obese?
What percent of children and adolescents in the U.S. are overweight or obese?
True or False: Obesity is only in industrialized nations.
more than 115 million people in developing countries suffer from obesity-related problems
When "energy out" exceeds "energy in", the _____ of fat cells decreases, but not their _____.
size; number
Excess fat first fills the body's natural storage site, which is what?
adipose tissue
What is epigenetics?
the influence of environmental factors
Obesity due to an increase in the NUMBER of fat cells
hyperplastic obesity
Obesity due to an increase in the SIZE of fat cells
hypertrophic obesity
What does leptin do?
suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure;
promotes negative energy balance
secreted primarily by the stomach cells;
promotes a positive energy balance by stimulating appetite and promoting efficient energy storage
Two types of fat in the body
Brown fat and white fat
What does white adipose tissue do?
stores fat for other cells to use for energy
What does brown adipose tissue do?
releases stored energy as heat
3 indicators used to evaluate the risks to health from obesity:
BMI, waist circumference, and disease risk profile
What things does the disease risk profile take into account?
Life-threatening diseases, family history, and common risk factors for chronic diseases.
Obese and overweight people with 2 OR MORE of these risk factors require aggressive treatment:
hypertension, cigarette smoking, high LDL, low HDL, impaired glucose tolerance, family history of heart disease, men 45+ years old, women 55+
Obese and overweight people with ANY of these DISEASES require aggressive treatment
heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea
True or False: Current laws do not require manufacturers of dietary supplements to test the safety or effectiveness of any product.
How many drugs has the FDA approved to treat obesity?
What are the 4 drugs that the FDA has approved to treat obesity?
sibutramine, orlistat, phentermine, and diethylpropion
Surgery may be an option for people with ALL of the following conditions:
unable to achieve adequate weight loss with diet and exercise, BMI >40 or >35 with weight-related health problems, no medical or psychological contradictions, understanding of risks and strong motivation to comply with post-surgery treatment plan
Depending on the type of surgery, INITIAL weight loss is _____% of body weight.
Ten years after surgery, weight loss is ______% of body weight.
What is a reasonable rate of weight loss for overweight people?
.5-2 pounds a week / 10% of body weight over 6 months
What types of foods help to lower energy density?
Foods containing water, rich in fiber, and low in fat
Current recommendations for physical activity
60 mins of moderately intense physical activity a day, in addition to activities of daily life
Health benefits of exercise
reduce abdominal obesity, and improve blood pressure, insulin resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness
Benefits of physical activity in a weight-management program
-- short-term increase in energy expenditure
-- long-term increase in BMR
-- improved body composition
-- appetite control
-- stress reduction and control of stress eating
-- physical & psychological well-being
-- improved self-esteem
How many steps a day helps to support a healthy BMI?
10,000 steps
Successful weight-loss maintenance
achieving a weight loss of at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least one year
What does Sibutramine do?
suppresses appetite
approved drug to treat obesity; inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in the GI tract
Phentermine and Diethylpropion
2 drugs approved to treat obesity; enhance the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, reduces food intake
Weight maintenance may require a person to expend at least ______ calories in physical activity per week.