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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The immune system evaluates cells by examining certain molecules on their surface called _______.
In relation to the immune system's evaluation of cells, "markers" generally consist of _______ and/or _______.

Markers (immune system) -
markers allow cells of the immune system to identify whether or not a newly discovered cell poses a threat.
How is a "marker" like a "face"??
Markers can be thought of as the cellular equivalent of facial characteristics in humans and allow the cells of the immune system to identify whether or not a newly discovered cell poses a threat.
Interferon (IFN) is a small _______ produced naturally by certain _______ _______ and _______ cells that is used in therapy against certain _______ infections and _______.
Protein; white blood; tissue; viral; cancer.
Although Interferon (IFN) was originally thought to be directed exclusively against viruses, it is now know to be involved also in?
Defense against other microbes and in immune regulation and intercommunication.
Three major types of Interferons:
Interferon alpha

Interferon Beta

Interferon Gamma
Interferon alpha is a product of?
Lymphocytes and macrophages.
Interferon beta is a product of?
fibroblasts and epithelial cells
Interferon Gamma is a product of?
T cells
All three classes of Interferons are produced in response to what four (4) things?
Viruses; RNA; immune products; various antigens
In all cases, Interferons do this:
Bind to cell surfaces and induce changes in genetic expression, but exact results vary.
In addition to antiviral effects discussed, all three IFNs can inhibit"
The expression of cancer genes and have tumor suppressor effects
IFN alpha and beta stimulate _______, and IFN gamma is an _______ _______of _______ and _______ and _______ cells.
Phagocytes; immune regulator; macrophages; T; B.
Nonspecific immune ractions are generalized responses to invasion, regardless of the type. These include the following four (4) responses:
Inflammation; phagocytosis; interferon; complement.
Rubor means?
Calor means?
Another name for "tumor"
Dolor means?
The four symptoms of inflammation are? What often accompanies these four symptoms?
Rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (edema), and dolor (pain).
Loss of function often accompanies these.
Fever is another component of?
Nonspecific immunity
Fever is caused by both _______ and _______ pyrogens.
Endogenous and exogenous
Fever does this to the host immune response?
increases the rapidity of the host immune response.
What action does fever have on microbial invaders?
Reduces the viability of many microbial invaders.
Macrophages are activated by?
What are two key phagocytic agents of nonspecific response to disease?
Macrophages and neutrophils
PMN means?
Plasma contains _______, a nonspecific group of _______ that work on its own or with the _______ _______ of defense to attack foreign cells.
Complement; chemicals; third line
Host defenses are classified into one of the two following general categories:
Innate and nonspecific
Acquired and specific
Innate (inborn) and nonspecific immunity represent which line(s) of defense?
First and second
The second category of host defenses (acquired, specific) represents the _______ line of defense.
A number of defenses are a normal part of the body's anatomy and physiology. These defenses represent what line of defense?
The first line of defense (inborn, nonspecific defenses) can be divided into three barriers. They are:


What does the first line of defense impede?
Entry of not only microbes but any foreign agent, whether living or not.
Which line of defense is responsible for specific immunity? It's also the most complex.
Phagocytes that engulf foreigh matter and destroy it, and inflammation which holds infection in check, are examples of what line of defense?
The second line of defense is a _______ and _______ that comes immediately into play if infectious agents make it past the _______ defenses.


Which form of immunity is usually long term and has memory?
Briefly describe the actions of the third line of host defense.
Includes specific host defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized WBCs.
These regions have several built-in defenses (part of the first line of defense).
Skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tract.
The outermost layer of skin is composed of epithelial cells that have become _______, _______ together, and impregnated with an insoluble _______, _______.


Protein, Keratin
Skin results in a thick, tough layer that is highly impervious and waterproof. The outermost layer of skin (composed of epithelial tissue) that is partially responsible for these defense qualities is:
Stratum corneum
Two other cutaneous barriers that make up the first line of host defenses:
The hair follicles and skin glands.
Two other cutaneous barriers that make up the first line of host defenses:
The hair follicles and skin glands.
Two other cutaneous barriers that make up the first line of host defenses:
The hair follicles and skin glands.
How do hair follicles and skin glands function to act as host defense?
The hair shaft is periodically extruded, and the follicle cells are desquamated. The flushing effect of sweat glands also help remove microbes.
Define Desquamated
To shed the cuticles in scales; to peel off the outer layer of a surface.
The specific immune response that is customized to react to specific antigens of the microbial invader:
Third line
One of the three parenthetical answers is correct with regards to the following statement; choose the correct answer. The third line response immobilizes and destroys the invader ( occasionally, most of the time; every time) it appears in the host.
Every time
The immune system operates first as a _______ system that discriminates between the host's self identity _______ and the _______ identity _______ of foreign cells.



As far as the immune system is concerned, if an _______ is not _______, it is foreign, does not belong and must be _______.


B and T cells arise from the same _______ cell but later diverge into _______ cell lines.
Stem; two
The appearances of B and T cells are similar, and one cannot differentiate them on the basis of _______.
What type of stem cell does B and T cells originate from?
Lymphocyte stem cells
The "B" in B lymphocytes (B cells) stands for _______; the "T" in T lymphocytes (T cells) stands for _______.

In humans, B cells mature here:
In special bone marrow sites
Humans do not have bursa. In all birds and mammals, T cells mature here:
Thymus gland.
Both populations of cells are transported by the _______ and _______ and move about freely between _______ organs and _______ tissue.
Bloodstream; lymph; lymphoid; connective
What type of cells are the key cells in the third line of defense?
Lymphocytes (key cells in the third line of defense and the specific immune response).
The four (4) major subdivisions of the immune system are:
RES; ECF; the blood vascular system, and the lymphatic system
What does "RES" stand for?
Reticuloendothelial System
What is the reticuloendotheial system (RES)?
It is a network of connective tissue fibers inhibited by macrophages ready to attack and ingest microbes that have managed to bypass the first line of defense.
How does the ECF (extracellular fluid) compartment work in immune defense?
Compartment surrounds all cells and is penetrated by both blood and lymph vessels, which bring all components of the second and third line of defense to attack infectious microbes.
What type of defenses does the blood contain?
Both specific and nonspecific
Nonspecific cellular defenses (of blood) include the _______, _______, and _______ cells.


Dendritic cells
The two components of specific immune response (of blood) are the _______ and _______.
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes provide specific _______ _______immunity, and the B lymphocytes produce specific _______ or _______ immunity.

Antibody, or humoral
The lymphatic system has three (3) functions. They are?
1) Returns tissue fluid to general circulation; 2) carries away excess fluid in inflamed tissues; (3) concentrates and processes foreign invaders and initiates the specific immune response.
These five (5) sites are important sites of lymphoid tissues:
1) Lymph nodes
2) spleen
3) thymus
4) tonsils
There are _______ major events in inflammation.
The process leading to inflammation is a dynamic, predicatable sequence of events that can be acute, lasting from a _______ _______ or _______, to _______, lasting for _______, _______ or, _______.
few minutes or hours, to chronic, lasting for days, weeks, or years.
List the four (4) stages of inflammation in order of occurrence:
(a) Injury/immediate reactions
(b) Vascular Reactions
(c) Edema and Pus Formation
(d) Resolution/Scar Formation
During the first stage of Inflammation, what happens?
Injury (bacteria in wound) ---> reflex narrowing of the blood vessels (vasoconstriction) lasting for a short time ---> Release of chemical mediators into the area.
During the Injury/Immediate Reaction stage, what cells release chemical mediators?
Mast Cells
During the second stage, Vascular Reactions, what occurs?
Increased diameter of blood vessels (vasodilation) ---> Increased blood flow ---> Increased vascular permeability ---> Leakage of fluid (plasma) from blood vessels into tissues (exudate formation).
What happens during the third stage of Inflammation?
Edema ---> Infiltration of site by neutrophils and accumulation of pus.
What happens during the fourth stage of inflammation?
Macrophages and lymphocytes ---> Repair, either by complete resolution and return of tissue to normal state or by formation of scar tissue.
Name the six (6) events in phagocytosis:
1) Chemotaxis
2) Ingestions
3) Phagolysosome formation
4) Destruction, and
5) Excretion
During chemotaxis and ingestion, phagocytes migrate into a region of inflammation with a deliberate sense of direction. What attracts them?
A gradient of stimulant products from the parasite and host tissue at the site of injury.
Phagocytes are now known to be able to recognize some microorganisms as foreign because of:
Signal molecules that the microbes have on their surfaces.
What are the signal molecules called, found on microbial surfaces, which attract the phagocytes?
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
how (or why) do PAMPs become "red flags" for phagocytes and other cells of innate immunity?
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are found on the surface of many microorganisms, but not present in mammals, and therefore draw the attention of phagocytes and other cells of innate immunity.