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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Densest, tiniest neurons located in the back of the brain
Control motor control and smooth coordinated movement
Cerebral Cortex
Sheet of cell bodies and neurons thought to be involved with higher order computing
Gray matter- computation
White Matter- cabling
Occipital lobe
deals with visual processing- large visual cortex area in the back of brain

2 streams of vision- "what" pathway and "where/how" pathway
Temporal Lobe
Bottom of brain- contains audio processing
postrior dorsal part of brain
Frontal lobe
Higher order functions, anterior of brain
connectivity between cerebral cortex and hypothalamus-very plastic (target of advertisements
deals with short term memory, stores long-term memories
Basal Ganglia
involved with motivation to act and deals with action and reward, dopamine as a neurotransmitter
processes senses and relays to cerebral cortex
also receives information (eye-->LGN--> Cortex--> Thalamus
Broca's area
Area in control of speech formation
Wernicke's area
area that controls understanding of speech
Layer I of Cortical Tissue
Molecular--no cell bodies
Layers II/III of Cortical Tissue
Cell bodies project to other cortical areas
"feed forward"
Layer IV of Cortical Tissue
Input layer--small cell bodies that have local projections
"granule cells"
Layers V and VI of Cortical Tissue
project to subcortical structures
motor cortex-->spinal cord
Large neurons (pyramidal cells)
Cortical Column
vertical clump of cell bodies that helps process one type of information
cell body appendages that receive chemical stimuli and interact at the synapse
space where axon meets the dendrite--receives chemical stimuli across synaptic cleft in the form of neurotransmitters that diffuse
Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential
Increases voltage in dendrite
Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
drop in voltage
Axon hillock
location where axon protrudes from the cell body
Where EPSPs and IPSPs are summed and Action Potential begins to generate
Myelin Sheath
fat wrapped around the axon to help action potential travel more efficiently
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the Axon that regenerate action potential
Saltatory induction
process which which action potential jumps from node to node
glia cell that produces myelin
Gap Junction
direct electrical connection rather than synaptic cleft in order for neurons to act in synchrony
Blood Brain barrier-
prevents certain chemicals from entering the brain and disrupting the balance of chemicals that the neurons have
Phospholipid Bilayer
Hydrophilic Head and Hydrophobic carbon tail that make up the cell membrane
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Perephiral nervous system
nerves that are not in the central nervous system
Somatic PNS
part of PNS that produces voluntary movement
Visceral PNS
part of PNS that has involuntary movement
Primary neurotransmitter in parasympathetic nervous system
Primary neurotransmitter in sympathetic nervous system
Nucleus of a solitary tract
first projection for taste
Superchiasmatic nucleus
Structure above optic chasm that has input in the circadian rhythms of the body
Circadian rhythms
natural rhythms of biological functions (sleeping, eating) that are genetically entrained by light
Magnocellular neurosecretary cells
cells in Hypothalamus that project to posterior pituitary
Parvocellular neurons in paracentricular nuclei
neurons that project at project to pituitary and secrete releasing factors that reach the anterior pituitary through the portal system
Portal system
series of veins and capillaries that connect hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
Lateral Hypothalamus
part of hypothalamus that stimulates eating and drinking
Medial Hypothalamus
Part of hypothalamus that stimulates satiety
part of the brain crucial in linking emotions that sends dense projections to the hypothalamus
connects events and stimuli with emotion
Psychic blindness/ Kluver Bucy Syndrom
Inability to recognize importance of events resulting from lesioned amygdala
Beta waves
Brain waives while awake
Alpha waves
brain waves during transitional sleep
Theta waves
waves in stages 1 and 2 of sleep, sometimes accompanied by sleep spindles
Sleep spindles
spikes from theta to alpha waves that occur during Stage 2
Delta Waves
slowest waves (.5-2 Hz) that occur during stages 3 and 4
Meissner Corpuscles
fluid filled sacs that are located near the edges of the papillary ridges. When tension is present, causes channels to open
Rapidly adapting
Merkel Discs
Touch receptors located near the surface that are slowly adapting and are attached to skin cells
Ruffini Ending
Deep, slowly adapting mechanoreceptor that is anchored to the surrounding molecules
Stretch receptor responding to movement
Paccinian Corpuscles
Largest of the receptors--deep and sensitive to mechanical energy
Rapidly adapting--sensitive to vibration
Two Channel System
System used by color and temperature to distinguish temperature/color with a limited amount of receptors
Golgi Tendon Organs
mechanical receptor that is connected to muscle and tendon and measures tension and movement in muscles
Joint receptors
proprioceptive receptors that determine angle
Muscle spindles
proprioceptive receptors located in the muscle themselves that detect the length of the muscle
Hammer, 1st bone in middle ear
Anvil, 2nd bone in middle ear
Stirrup, 3rd bone in middle ear, moves in and out of oval window and amplifies the vibrations and transfers to chochlea
Eustachian Tube
helps equilibrate the air pressures in and out of the inner ear
organs in the vestibular system made out of calcium carbonate that detect changes in direction and linear acceleration
Semicircular Canals
Fluid filled canals that help measure balance--if they don't match the visual input then dizziness occurs
snail-like structure in the inner ear that contains the mechanism for converting vibrations into sound
Scalar Vestibuli
top cavity in cochlea meets the oval window
Scalar media
middle cavity in cochlea
Scala tympani
bottom cavity in cochlea- mets the round window
Basilar Membrane
Separates scala timpani and scala media and supports the organ of corti
Reissner's membrane
separtes scala vestiboli and scala media
Tectorial Membrane
membrane that goes over the organ of corti that transfers sound to the
Medial Superior Olive
Detects interhoral time differences, temporal calculations (axons have different lengths and action potentials reach at different times
Lateral Superior Olive
interhoral intensity differences