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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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impairment of the ability to make movements exhibiting a rapid change of motion that is caused by cerebellar dysfunction


distorted positioning of the limbs, neck, or trunk that is held for a few seconds and then released

involuntary muscle contractions that cause repetitive, twisting movements

Ballistic Movements

high velocity, repetitive movements over a short period of time


Type of Cerebral Palsy

Involuntary purposeless movements

1. nontension: contorted movements

2. tension: blocked movements and flailing

Slow, involuntary, worm-like, twisting motion.


Tool used to apply and test 2-point discrimination

aka: disk-criminator


identifying the excursion and direction of joint movement

person's sense of position, weight, and movement in space

receptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints


abnormal sensation, such as burning or prickling


ability to identify sizes, shapes, and weights of familiar objects without the use of vision


tool used to measure sensitivity/sensation of vibration


a sensory cell or organ responsive to chemical stimuli


process of accommodating to a stimulus through repeated diminishing exposure


a sense organ or cell that responds to mechanical stimuli such as touch or sound


disease or dysfunction of one or more peripheral nerves, typically causing numbness or weakness


static shortening of a muscle and connective tissue that limits range of motion at a joint


surgical fixation of a tendon

Maximum Voluntary Contraction

the greatest amount of tension a muscle can generate and hold, however briefly, as in MMT


inability to perform rapidly alternating movements, such as pronation and supination


inability to coordinate movement

poor balance and awkward movement, especially related to gait


group of speech disorders resulting from disturbances in muscular control


condition seen in cerebellar disorders in which the patient overshoots a target because of an inability to control movement


any disturbance in smooth muscle coordination, resulting in uncoordinated and abrupt movements

common for patients to split a movement into several smaller movements

aspect of ataxia


rhythmic, constant, and rapid involuntary movement of the eyeball

Rebound Phenomenon of Holmes

inability to stop a resisted muscle contraction such that a movement of the limb occurs when the resistance is unexpectedly withdrawn from the limb

sign of cerebellar disease


complete loss of sensation

Hypoesthesia vs. Hyperesthesia

decreased sensation vs. increased sensation


complete loss of pain sensation

Hypoalgesia vs. Hyperalgesia

diminished or decreased pain sensation vs. increased pain sensation


aka. tactile agnosia

inability to distinguish or identify common objects, forms, shapes and sizes by touch alone


a painful response to a non-tissue damaging stimulus that would not be expected to evoke pain

Median Nerve Distribution

palmar side of thumb, index finger, and middle finger

lateral side of ring fingr

dorsal tips of thumb, index finger and middle finger, and lateral tip of ring finger

Radial Nerve Distribution

Dorsal side of thumb, index finger, and lateral side of middle finger, with the exception of the tips

Ulnar Nerve Distribution

Little Finger

Dorsal side of middle finger and ring finger, except tips

Palmar medial side of ring finger

MMT Grade 0


no tension palpated in muscle or tendon

MMT Grade 1


tension palpated in muscle or tendon but no motion occurs in the joint

MMT Grade 2-

poor minus

gravity-eliminated plane

MMT Grade 2


full ROM

gravity-eliminated plane

no resistance

MMT Grade 2+

poor plus

full ROM

gravity-eliminated plane

minimal resistance with break

MMT Grade 3-

fair minus

against gravity

MMT Grade 3


full ROM

against gravity

no resistance

MMT Grade 3+

fair plus

full ROM

against gravity

minimal resistance with break

MMT Grade 4-

good minus

full ROM

against gravity

MMT Grade 4


full ROM

against gravity

moderate resistance

MMT Grade 5


full ROM

against gravity

maximal resistance

Cervical Spine ROM

flexion 0 - 45

extension 0 - 45

lateral flexion 0 - 45

rotation 0 - 60

Thoracic and Lumbar Spine ROM

flexion 0 - 80

extension 0 - 30

lateral flexion 0 - 40

rotation 0 - 45

Shoulder ROM

flexion 0 - 170

extension 0 - 60

abduction 0 - 170

adduction 0

horizontal abduction 0 - 40

horizontal adduction 0 - 130

Shoulder ROM


internal rotation

arm abducted 0 - 70

arm adducted 0 - 60

external rotation

arm abducted 0 - 90

arm adducted 0 - 80

Elbow ROM

flexion 0 - 135/150

extension 0

Forearm ROM

pronation 0 - 80/90

supination 0 - 80/90

Wrist ROM

flexion 0 - 80

extension 0 - 70

ulnar deviation 0 - 30

radial deviation 0 - 20

Thumb ROM

DIP flexion 0 - 80/90

MCP flexion 0 - 50

palmar abduction 0 - 50

radial abduction 0 - 50

opposition - composite motion

Finger ROM

MCP flexion 0 - 90

MCP hyperextension +15 - +45

PIP flexion 0 - 110

DIP flexion 0 - 80

abduction 0 - 25


flexion 0 - 120

extension 0 - 30

abduction 0 - 40

adduction 0 - 35

internal & external rotation 0 - 45

Knee ROM

flexion 0 - 145

Ankle and Foot ROM

plantar flexion 0 - 50

dorsiflexion 0 - 15

inversion 0 - 35

eversion 0 - 20


the integration and interpretation of sensory impressions received from the environment into psychologically meaningful information

Legal Blindness

a level of vision loss that has been legally defined to determine eligibility for benefits

clinical diagnosis: central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye the best possible correction, and/or a visual field of 20 degrees or less

Normal Limits of Visual Field

approximately 60 degrees nasally from the vertical meridian in each eye to 100 degrees temporally from the vertical meridian

approximately 60 degrees above and 75 degrees below the horizontal meridian


an MD or DO who specializes in the medical and surgical care of the eyes and visual system and in the prevention of eye disease and injury

evaluates, treats, and manages structures, functions, and diseases of the eye


professional who has a postgraduate degree in optometry, who is trained to evaluate the eye's function, diagnose disease, and correct refractive errors with prescription glasses or contact lenses

Occupational Therapist and Low Vision

may train client in some general adaptations for low vision, such as increased lighting and contrast

provides referrals to specialists for more extensive training and treatment

Occupational Therapist

Specialty Certification in Low Vision (SCLV)

OTs who have ongoing, focused, and targeted professional development in low vision rehabilitation

May train clients in the use of residual vision to complete ADLs; including environmental adaptation, compensatory techniques, community training, and training with optical and non-optical devices

Certified Low Vision Therapist (CLVT)

trains clients to use vision more effectively to complete daily activities, with and without devices

does not have to be an OT

Certified Vision Rehabilitation Therapist (CVRT)

emphasis of training is on blind techniques, assistive technology, device use for persons who are blind or have low vision, and teaching braille

does not have to be an OT

Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialist (COMS)

teaches clients in systematic, efficient techniques to remain oriented and safe when traveling using long canes, sighted guides, and dog guides

does not have to be an OT

Oculomotor Control

efficient movement of the eyes in a coordinated manner allowing for perceptual stability

includes eye alignment, accommodation, convergence and divergence, saccadic eye movements, and smooth pursuits

Convergence vs. Divergence (vision)

the coordinated turning of the eyes inward to focus on an object moving towards the face


the coordinated turning of the eyes outward to focus on an object moving away from the face

Saccadic Eye Movement

extremely fast voluntary movement of the eyes, allowing the eyes to accurately fix on a still object in the visual field as the person moves or the head turns


maintaining of the visual gaze on a single location

humans typically alternate saccades and visual fixations, the notable exception being a smooth pursuit

Smooth Pursuits


eye movement that allows the eyes to closely follow a moving object

Visual Fields

the available vision to the right, left, up and down

entire area that the eyes are able to see

Visual Acuity

the clarity of vision both near and far

ability of the eye to distinguish the fine details of what is seen

Visual Attention

awareness and identification of the body, the environment around one's body, and the relationship between the two

ability to search, scan, and identify and object and filter out unnecessary details

Visual Attention


most basic type of attention

Visual Attention


allows us to determine the what and where of things in out environment

1. selective or focal: concerned with the visual details

2. ambient or peripheral: detection of the peripheral environment and its relation to the person


ability to systematically observe and locate items in the environment

ability to search the environment, focus on the important details to interpret and identify correctly

uses saccadic eye movements

Visual Pattern Recognition

recognition of relevant details of an object and using these details to discriminate and object from its background

general: shape and outline

specific: color, shaping, and texture

Visual Memory

one's proficiency in taking, retaining, and processing a mental picture of an object

includes storing and retrieving images from short and long term memory

Visual Cognition

ability to manipulate and integrate visual input with other sensory information to gain knowledge, solve problems, formulate plans, and make decisions

Extraocular muscles of the Eye

Medial Rectus

Lateral Rectus

Superior Rectus

Inferior Rectus

Superior Oblique

Inferior Oblique

Cranial Nerves Impacting Vision

Optic Nerve II

Oculomotor Nerve III

Trochlear Nerve IV

Trigeminal Nerve V

Abducens Nerve VI


outermost transparent layer protecting the eye

assists in light refraction


colored part of the eye

muscular ring that controls the amount of light that enters the eye by dilating and constricting the pupil


biconvex structure that bends light to focus rays on the retina

Ciliary Body

muscle and fluid that aids the focusing of the lens

Vitreous Humor

clear gel-like substance that maintains the shape of the eye


tough coating of the eye that protects the inner structures


layer between the sclera and the retina that contains the blood vessels for the eye


a layer at the back of the eyeball containing cells (rods and cones) that are sensitive to light and trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the visual cortex of the brain, where a visual image is formed

multilayer, sensory structure


an opaque spot on the cornea

an oval yellowish area surrounding the fovea near the center of the retina in the eye, containing color-sensitive rods and the central point of sharpest vision


a small depression in the retina of the eye where visual acuity is the highest

the center of the field of vision is focused in this region, where retinal cones are particularly concentrated

center of the macula where the focus area of vision is located

Optic Chiasm

point at which the optic nerve fibers cross

medial half of each eye crosses to the opposite side and travels along with the lateral half of information from the other eye

Optic Tract

carries the visual message from the optic chiasm to the thalamus of the brain

each contains fibers from both eyes

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the Thalamus

structure at which fibers of the optic tract synapse

assists the CNS to filter out input that is not needed therefore refining the image

Visual Cortex

area of the occipital lobe in which enhancement of and image occurs before it is cortically processed


nearsightedness; inability to see far objects clearly


farsightedness; the inability to see near objects clearly


a defect in the eye or in a lens caused by a deviation from spherical curvature, which results in distorted images, because light rays are prevented from meeting at a common focus


impaired vision as a result of aging

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)

group of hereditary, genetic disorders that affect the retina's ability to respond to light

causes a slow loss of vision, beginning with decreased night vision and loss of peripheral vision, that leads to blindness


causes loss of vision when fluid pressure in the eye damages the optic nerve

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

common eye condition in which the macula is affected by edema, pigment is dispersed, and the macular area of the retina degenerates.

leading cause of visual impairment in persons over 50

Retinal Degeneration: Best Disease

autosomal dominant; inherited form of macular degeneration

usually diagnosed in childhood

causes loss of central vision

aka: Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

Retinal Degeneration: Stargardt Disease

autosomal recessive; most common form of inherited juvenile macular degeneration

usually diagnosed in childhood

causes loss of central vision due to death of photoreceptor cells in the macula


cloudiness of the lens of the eye

usually age-related

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

occurs in premature babies

abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina that can cause the retina to detach from the back of the eye, leading to blindness

aka: retrolental fibroplasia


lazy eye


total or partial loss of pigment (melanin)

causes a poorly developed fovea, and therefore poor acuity

due to lack of pigment in the iris, light sensitivity may be an issue

often have nystagmus

Diabetic Retinopathy

complication of diabetes in which small aneurysms form on retinal capillaries
Esophoria vs. Exophoria

tendency for eyes to turn inward when both eyes are fixating on an object


tendency for eyes to turn outward when both eyes are fixating on and object

Hyperphoria vs. Hypophoria

tendency for eyes to turn upward when both eyes are fixating on an object


tendency for eyes to turn downward when both eyes are fixating on an object

Esotropia vs. Esotropia

inward deviation of the eye when the other is focusing


outward deviation of the eye when the other is focusing

*the condition can be constantly present or occur intermittently

Hypertropia vs. Hypotropia

upward turning of the eye when the other is focusing


downward turning of the eye when the other is focusing


the acquired inability to read

Visual Closure

the ability to recognize a whole word or item when only partial information is given

can be dysfunctional

Figure Ground

differentiating between foreground and background forms and objects

persons ability to distinguish shapes and objects from the background in which they exist

can be dysfunctional

Spatial Relations

ability to perceive the self in relation to other objects

dysfunction: difficulty relating objects to each other or to the self secondary to loss of spatial concepts, such as up, down, front, back, under, over


ability to quickly change from near to far using both saccades and vergence skills

Extraocular Range of Motion

motor process of moving the eyes in a symmetrical manner throughout all nine cardinal directions


double vision

occurs when the fovea of both eyes are not aligned on the same target, so the brain cannot fuse the image

can be horizontal or vertical, a double image, or a blur or shadow

can be present near, intermediate, or far distances

Unilateral Body Neglect

failure to respond to or report unilateral stimulus presented to the body side contralateral to the brain lesion

Unilateral Spatial Neglect

inattention to, or neglect of, stimuli presented in the extrapersonal space contralateral to the lesion

space can be near and/or far

may occur without visual deficits


the ability to perform a movement

Limb Akinesia

absence of ability to move limb


characterized by a partial or complete loss of muscle movement due to a disruption in the basal ganglia

patients experience muscle rigidity and an inability to produce movement

delayed movement of limb

ex. Parkinson's Disease


decreased amplitude of movement

distortion of target-directed voluntary movement in which the limb falls short of reaching its target

Motor Impersistence

the inability to maintain postures or positions, such as keeping the eyes closed, protruding the tongue, maintaining a conjugate gaze in a fixed direction, or making a prolonged "ah" sound, without repeated prompts

Motor Perseveration

continuation or repetition of the same motor act (premotor) or task (prefrontal)

difficulty ending movement


lack of awareness of one object when objects are presented in both sides of the body at the same time, even though they are recognized when presented individually


inability to carry out a movement even though the sensory system, muscles, and coordination are intact


inability to comprehend sensory information due to CNS damage to the right occipital lobe

a loss of ability to recognize objects persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss

Form Constancy or Discrimination

ability to distinguish a form, shape, or object despite its location, position, color or size

Depth Perception

the ability to judge distances and depth


the ability to see things in three dimensions

lack of this ability can affect depth perception and makes the environment appear flat

Topographical Disoreintation

difficulty finding one's way in space secondary to memory dysfunction or an inability to interpret sensory stimuli

skill requires ability to determine current location, goal location, and problem solving


loss of ability to name objects or retrieve names of people


ability to identify forms, numbers, letters written on hand

dysfunction: agraphesthesia


the acquired inability to write


the acquired inability to perform calculations


a body scheme disorder that results in diminished awareness of body structure and failure to recognize body parts as one's own

may dress therapist's arm or brush teeth of mirror image


inability to identify body parts on self or someone else or the relationship between parts

Finger Agnosia

inability to recognize which finger was touched or is being used

may have difficulty identifying fingers when asked

may display clumsiness with fingers


lack of recognition or awareness of one's deficits

can be both a cognitive or sensory impairment


the ability of the brain to process, store, retrieve and manipulate information.

involves understanding and knowing, the ability to judge and make decisions, and environmental awareness

Broca's Aphasia

loss of expressive language indicated by a loss of speech production

Wernicke's Aphasia

a deficit in auditory comprehension that affects semantic speech performance, manifested in paraphasia or nonsensical syllables

Global Aphasia

the symptoms of global aphasia are those of severe Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia combined.

Almost total reduction in all aspects of spoken and written language, in expressive and comprehension

Long-Term Memory Loss

lack of storage, consolidation and retention of information that has passed through working memory, including loss of information retrieval

Short-Term Memory Loss

lack of registration and temporary storing of information received by various sensory modalities

loss of working memory

Executive Dysfunction or Dysexecutive Syndrome

Impairments related to multiple specific functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, task switching, modifying behavior, self-correction, generating strategies, formulating goals, and sequencing of complex actions

applying previously learned concepts and behaviors to a variety of situations

skills and performance in applying specific concepts to a variety of related solutions

ability to apply learned compensatory strategies to new environments or situations

Abstract Thinking

ability to differentiate between pertinent and nonpertinent information as well as recognize the relationships within the situation (events, people, objects, thoughts)

thinking symbolically

Concrete Thinking

tangible, specific

Convergent Thinking

central idea

Divergent Thinking

conflicting or alternative ideas

Deductive Reasoning

use specifics to reach conclusions

Inductive Reasoning

Use generalizations to reach a specific result