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22 Cards in this Set

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Define the endocrine system

- a system of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream to regulate a variety of body functions including the control of mood, growth, and development, tissue function and metabolism


- endocrine means hormone secreting


- hormones secreted by the endocrine system affect all forms of human function including (but not limited to) triggering muscle contraction, regulating growth and metabolism, etc.

What comprises the endocrine system?

- host organs (known as glands)


- chemical messengers (hormones)


- target (receptor) cells


- once a hormone is secreted from a gland, it travels through the bloodstream to target cells designed to receives its message. The target cells have hormone- specific receptors ensuring that each hormone will communicate only with specific target cells

What is the responsibility of the endocrine system?

- responsible for regulating multiple body functions to stabilize the body's internal environment (much like a thermostat)

What are the primary endocrine glands?

- hypothalmus


- pituitary


- thyroid


- adrenal

why is the pituitary gland referred to as the "master" gland?

- it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands

describe the pituitary gland

- has three different sections or lobes (the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes)


- each lobe secretes a specific type of hormone

What hormone does the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?

- prolactin (to stimulate milk production after giving birth)


- adrenocorticopic hormone (ACTH): to stimulate the adrenal glands


- thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): to stimulate the thyroid gland


- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): to stimulate the ovaries and testes


- luteinizing hormone (LH): to stimulate the ovaries and testes

What hormones does the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?

- melanocyte stimulating hormone: to control skin pigmentation

What hormone does the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?

-antidiuretic hormone (ADH): increases the absorption of water into the blood by the kidneys


-oxytocin: to contract the uterus during childbirth and stimulate milk production.

what hormones do the thyroids produce?

hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body.

what hormones to the adrenal glands secrete?

corticosteroids and catecholamines including cortisol and adrenaline (epinephrine) in response to stress

What glands control much of hormonal activity?

the hypothalamus and pituitary gland which are located in the brain.


- together they represent an important link between the nervous and endocrine systems

What is the primary energy source during exercise?

- carbohydrate- specifically glucose


- carbs are the bod's key source of energy


- glucose is the principal fuel for the brain


* extreme fluctuations in blood glucose levels can be extremely dangerous: too little can inhibit performance and too much can damage the vascular system.

What regulates the control of blood glucose?

the pancreas

what hormones are produced by the pancreas?

- insulin


- glucagon

What is the function of insulin?

- helps regulate energy and glucose metabolism in the body


- elevated levels of glucose trigger the release of insulin

What is the function of glucagon?

- regulate blood glucose levels


- its effect is opposite to that of insulin as it functions to raise blood glucose levels by triggering the release of glycogen stores from the liver


- glycogen is stored form of glucose.


- decrease in blood glucose levels trigger the release of glucagon from the pancreas


- glucagon stimulates the liver to convert glycogen stores back into glucose.

What is the interrelationship between insulin and glucagon as it pertains to exercise?

-as activity increase, glucose uptake by the body's cells increases. This is a result of an increased sensitivity of the cells to insulin; thus insulin levels will drop during physical activity.


- at the same time glucagon secretion by the pancreas increases thus maintaining a steady supply of blood glucose.

What hormones do the adrenal glands produce?

two catecholamines called epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine


What is the function of the catecholamines (adrenaline and norepinephrine)?

-prepare the body for activity


- part of the stress response known as "fight or flight"

What triggers the adrenal gland to secrete more epinephrine in preparation for activity?

the hypothalamus (part of the brain)

what physiological effects occur as a result of epinephrine secretion that helps sustain exercise activity?

- increase heart rate and stroke volume


- elevates blood glucose levels


- redistributes blood to working tissues


- opens up the airways