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13 Cards in this Set

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What is joint motion?


What are the major motion types for joints?

1. Roll: one joint rolls across the surface of another(e.g. femoral condyles moving (rolling) over the tibial condyles during a squat.

2. Slide: one joint's surface slides across another much like a tire skidding (e.g. tibial condyles sliding across the femoral condyles during a knee extension)

3. Spin: one joint surface rotates on another much like twisting the lid off a jar (e.g. the head of the radius (forearm) rotating on the end of the humerus during pronation/supination of the forearm.

What are the types of joints?

synovial: joints held together by a joint capsule and ligaments; most associated with movement in the body. comprise 80% of joints in the body

nonsynovial: joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage. little to no movement (e.g. distal joint of the tibia, sutures of the skull)

Describe synovial joints

- have a synovial capsule (collagenous structure) surrounding the entire joint

- a synovial membrane (inner layer of the capsule)

-hyaline cartilage which pads the ends of the articulating bone

-produces synovial fluid: secreted within the joint capsule from the synovial membrane and is essential for lubricating the joint surfaces to reduce excessive wear and to nourish the cartilage cells that line the joint.

What are the types of synovial joints?

-gliding (plane)

-condyloid (condylar or ellipsoidal)

- hinge



-ball and socket

describe a gliding joint

-nonaxial joint

- simplest movement of all joints

-moves side to side

- moves back and forth

(e.g. Carpals of the hand)

describe a condyloid (condylar or ellipsoidal) Joints

-condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bone to form the joint.

-movement occurs predominantly in one plane (flexion/extension in the sagittal plane) with minimal movement in the others (rotation in the transverse plane, adduction/abduction in the frontal plane)

- (e.g. wrist between the radius and carpals and joints of the fingers)

describe a hinge joint

- uniaxial joint allowing movement predominantly in only one plane of motion, the sagittal plane.

(e.g. elbow and ankle are considered hinge joints)

describe the saddle joint

- one bone looks like a saddle w/ the articulating bone straddling it like a rider.

- this joint is only found in the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb

-allows movement predominantly in 2 planes of motion (flexion and extension in the sagittal plane; adduction/ abduction in the frontal plane) with some rotation to produce circumduction (circular motion)

describe pivot joints

-allow movement predominantly in one plane of motion (rotation, pronation, and supination in the transverse plane)

- these joints are found in the atlantoaxial joint at the base of the skull (top of the spine) and the proximal radioulnar joint at the elbow.

describe the ball and socket joint

-the most mobile of all joints

- allow movement in all three planes

- (e.g. shoulder and hip)

what are the function of joints?

- joints allow for motion and thus movement

- provide stability allowing for movement to take place without unwanted movement

- all joints in the human body are linked together meaning that movement of one affects the motion of others.

describe ligaments

primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system (proprioception), guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.

-primarily made up of a protein called collagen w/ varying amounts of a 2nd protein called elastin.

-collagen fibers provide the ligament with the ability to withstand tension (tensile strength)

-elastin gives a ligament some flexibility or elastic recoil to withstand bending or twisting

-ligaments have poor vascularity (or blood supply) so they do not heal or repair very well and may be slower to adapt to stresses placed on the body