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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three regions of each nasal chamber?
respiratory segment
olfactory segment
What is the vestibule?
Site of communication with external environment via the external nares (nostrils).
What is the histology of the vestibule?
Lined with stratified squamous epithelium that contains hairs.
Hairs prevent large particulates from entering the nasal cavities.
What transition area is seen at the end of the vestibule?
Where the vestibule ends, the stratified squamous epithelium is replaced by respiratory epithelium, pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells.
What is the histology of the respiratory segment?
Lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells (respiratory epithelium).

Underlying lamina propria attached to the periosteum of the underlying bone.
What are the boundaries of the respiratory segment?
The medial wall is nasal septum.

The lateral wall is characterized by three shelf-like bony prominences call conchae or turbinates.
What is the function of the turbinates?
They increase surface area and cause a turbulence in air flow to allow for better warming and moisterizing of the air.

The turbinates also cause eddies in the airflow that help remove particulate matter by trapping it in the mucus of the cavity.
What happens to the LP of the nasal cavity during an allergic reactoin?
Vessels become excessively engorged and leaky during allergic reactions and viral infections.

consequent distention of the lamina propria makes breathing more difficult.
What is the function of the LP of the nasal cavity?
Very vascular.

Warms the inspired air nearer to body temperature.
What do demilume cells do?
Demilune cells secrete lysozyme, an antibacterial.
What is the olfactory segment?
Although the olfactory epithelium is pseudostratified columnar epithelium similar in appearance to respiratory epithelium, it is actually very different.

A very effective few square centimeters.
What are the 4 cell types in the olfactory segment?
Olfactory cells
Special visceral sensory cells

Supporting or sustentacular cells
Provide mechanical and metabolic support for olfactory sensory cells. Role is similar to that of glial cells.

Basal cells
Mitotic cells that renew the sensory and sustentacular (supporting) cells.

Brush cells
General sensory cells - innervated by the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V).
Signal touch from the olfactory epithelium. Brush cells are also found in the respiratory epithelium
What are the olfactory cells?
At their apical surface, they have a knob-like structure, the olfactory vesicle.
Bipolar neurons

The vesicle has a number of non-motile cilia on its surface. The cilia are the sites of olfactory receptors.
What does the basal end of the olfactory cell do?
The basal end of the cell gives rise to an axon.

The axon joins others to form the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I).
Where do the olfactory cell axons go?
The olfactory axons penetrate the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone to synapse in the olfactory bulb.

These neurons, unlike others in adult humans, can regenerate.
What is the framework of the nasal cavity?
External nose predominantly cartilagenous.

Posterior nasal cavity predominantly bone.
What are the posterior openings into the nasopharynx?
What are the components of the nasal septum?
Septal cartilage,
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.
Small contribution by the nasal bones
nasal spine of the frontal bone.
Nasal crests of the maxillary and palatine bones.
Rostrum of sphenoid bone incisor crest of the maxilla.
What does the ethmoid bone contribute to the nasal cavity?
Cribriform plate is the roof. Highest part of the nasal cavity.
What rests on the cribriform plate?
Olfactory bulb
What goes through the cribriform foramina?
Olfactory nerves
What makes up the roof of the nasal cavity?
nasal spine of frontal bone
Nasal bone
Lateral processes of septal bone.
Major alar cartilages.
What makes up the floor of the nasal cavity
Soft tissue of external nose.
Upper surface of the hard palate.
Palatine process of maxillary bone.
Horizontal plate of palatine bone.
What makes up the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?
Ethmoid bone. - Labyrinth and uncinate process.
Palatine bone.- Perpendicular plate.
Sphenoid bone. - Medial plate of pterygoid process.
Lacrimal bone. - Medial surface.
Maxillary bone. - Medial surface.
Inferior concha. - Separate bone.
What are the four paired paranasal air sinuses?
Ethmoidal air cells. - Anterior. Middle. Posterior.
Where do the paranasal sinuses drain into?
Nasal cavities
What are the sinuses lined by?
Olfactory epithelium, there is a lining under the bone
What can you see in a CT of normal sinuses?
MS –maxillary sinus

ES – ethmoid sinuses

SC – superior choncha

MC – middle choncha

IC – inferior choncha
Where does the frontal sinus drain?
Frontal sinus drains via the frontonasal duct into the middle meatus.
Where does the anterior ethmoid air cells drain?
Anterior drains into frontonasal duct or infundibulum.
Where do the middle ethmoid sinus drain?
Middle drain onto the ethmoidal bulla.
Where does the posterior ethmoid sinus drain?
Posterior drain onto lateral wall of superior meatus.
Where does the maxillary sinus drain?
Maxillary drains into semilunar hiatus.
Where does the sphenoidal sinus drain?
Sphenoid sinus drains into spheno-ethmoidal recess.
What are the frontal sinuses innervated by?
Innervated by branches of the supraorbital nerve of V1.
What are the ethmoidal sinuses innervated by?
Branches of nasociliary from V1 and orbital branches of V2 from pterygopalatine ganglion.
What are the maxillary sinuses innervated by?
Infraorbital and alveolar branches of V2.
What are the sphenoidal sinuses innervated by?
Posterior ethmoidal branch of V1 and orbital branches of V2 from pterygopalatine ganglion.
What are the two branches of the sphenopalatine?
Posterior lateral nasal
Posterior septal
What is the main blood supply of the nasal cavity?
Sphenopalatine artery
What is the course of the greater palatine artery?
Travels from pterygopalatine fossa, through the greater palatine foramen, along roof of oral cavity and enters nasal cavity via the incisive foramen.
What is the course of the anterior ethmoidal artery?
Enters nasal cavity via a foramen immediately lateral to crista galli of the ethmoid bone.

Branch to the septum.
Lateral branch.
What does the posterior ethmoidal artery supply?
Upper posterior lateral wall and septum.
Where does the majority of the nasal cavity drain?
Much of the blood from the nasal cavity drains posteriorly into the pterygopalatine plexus or the cavernous sinus.
What enters the nasal cavity via the sphenopalatine foramen?
Nasopalatine nerve
Posterior superior lateral
Posterior superior medial nerves.
What is a branch of the greater palatine nerve that passes through small bony foramina to enter the nasal cavity?
Posterior inferior alveolar nerves
What are the branches of V2 that innervate the nasal cavity?
Nasopalatine nerve
Posterior superior lateral
Posterior superior medial
Posterior inferior aveolar
What are the branches of V1 nasocilliary that innervate the nasal cavity?
Anterior ethmoidal nerve.
Posterior ethmoidal nerve.
What are the three major innervations of the nasal cavity?
V1 --> nasociliary branches
V2 --> from pterygopalatine fossa
What are the parasympathetics to the nasal cavity?
Preganglionic axons are in greater petrosal nerve of facial nerve

Postganglionic neurons are in the pterygopalatine ganglion. - These secretomotor axons travel with branches of V that enter the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
What are the sympathetics to the nasal cavity?
Preganglionic neuron at T1 level of spinal cord. - Synapse in superior cervical ganglion.

Postganglionic axons travel in the carotid plexus. - Form deep petrosal nerve, which joins greater petrosal nerve to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal.
Travel with parasympathetics in branches of V.

These axons are vasomotor.
Where does the nasolacrimal duct drain?
Into the inferior meatus
What are the cartilages of the external nose?
Lateral process of septal cartilage
Superior margin of septal cartilage
Major alar cartilage (tip of nose)
Septal cartilage (bottom of nose)
Minor alar cartilages (back of nostril)
What is the ethmoidal bulla?
The rounded portion made by the middle ethmoidal cells
What tube opens in the back of the nasal cavity?
Pharyngotympanic tube
What is the semilunar hiatus?
Area where the infundibulum of frontonasal duct and the ethmoidal bullus is.

Under the middle nasal concha
Where does the maxillary sinus drain?
In the opening of the floor of the semilunar hiatus
Where is the lateral wall of the superior meatus located?
Under the superior nasal concha
What artery goes all the way along the roof of the oral cavity?
Greater palatine artery
Where does the nasolacrimal duct drain?
Into the inferior meatus below the inferior concha
Parts of the lacrimal apparatus
Lacrimal canaliculi
Lacrimal sac
Nasolacrimal duct