• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where is the brain derived from?
Neural tube rostral (cranial) to the 4th pair of somites.
What are the three primary vesicles?
What are the five secondary vesicles?
What does the telencephalon give rise to in the adult?
Cerebral cortex
Basal ganglia
Lateral ventricles are remnant of vesicle
What does the diencephalon give rise to in the adult?
Third ventricle remnant of vesicle
What is the function of the precentral gyrus?
primary motor
What is the function of the postcentral gyrus?
What is the function of the gyrus of the temporal lobe?
What is the function of the occipital lobe, banks of calcarine fissure?
What is an upper motor neuron?
Axons that leave the cortex, descend in the internal capsule, through the cerebral peduncle, into the pons and medulla where they are in the pyramids. The fibers cross (90%) in the pyramidal decussation.
Where do upper motor neurons travel and synapse?
Descend in the lateral corticospinal tract and synapse on motor neurons in the ventral horn.
What is the purpose of the lateral tract of the corticospinal tract?
Lateral tract – crossed
Innervates motor neurons of limbs (lower motor neurons)
What is the purpose of the anterior (medial) corticospinal tract?
anterior (medial) tract – uncrossed
Innervates trunk muscles = axial muscles
What is the postcentral gyrus?
Brodmann’s areas 3,1,2 is primary sensory cortex
What are the two major sensory pathways of the postcentral gyrus?
Dorsal columns

Systems cross either in the brainstem (dorsal columns) or in the spinal cord (anterolateral system)

Relay through the thalamus
What does the dorsal column pathway do?
discriminative touch, proprioception, and vibratory sense
What does the anteriolateral column pathway do?
crude touch, pain and temperature

Also called spinothalamic system
What is found in the mesencephalon?
Cerebral peduncles
Interpeduncular fossa
Copora quadrigemini
Superior colliculi
Inferior colliculi
What is found in the metencephalon?
What is found in the medulla oblongata?
Inferior olive
What are the two arterial systems that contribute to the blood supply of the brain?
Internal carotid artery
Vertebral artery
What is the course of the internal carotid artery?
Comes off common carotid artery
Enters cranial cavity via the carotid canal
What does the internal carotid supply?
Supplies primarily the orbit, eye and anterior/middle brain
What is the course of the vertebral artery?
1st branch of subclavian artery

Travels through the transverse foramina of C6-C1

Enters the cranial cavity via the foramen magnum

Gives rise to three branches then fuses to form the basilar artery on the inferior surface of the pons

Enters foramen magnum
Joins artery of opposite side to form basilar artery
What does the vertebral artery supply?
Posterior division of brain also getting the brainstem predominately
What are the three branches of the vertebral artery?
Anterior spinal artery
Posterior spinal artery
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)
What is the most common brainstem lesion?
PICA lesion
What is the course of the basilar artery?
Travels rostrally on the anterior aspect of the pons
Gives rise to paired branches from caudal to rostral
What are the paired branches that the basilar artery gives rise to?
Anterior inferior cerebellar arteries
Pontine arteries (about 3)
Superior cerebellar arteries
What is the course of the internal carotid artery?
Enters the cranial cavity via the carotid canal
Passes through the cavernous sinus
First branch is the ophthalmic artery
Terminal branches
What are the terminal branches of the internal carotid?
Posterior communicating artery

Middle cerebral artery - lateral aspect of cerebrum

Anterior cerebral artery - medial aspect of cerebrum
What is the circle of Willis formed by?
Anterior communicating connects left and right anterior cerebral arteries

Posterior communicating arteries, one on each side, connects the internal carotid to the posterior cerebral artery
What is the circle of Willis?
Forms at the base of the brain.
Anastomosis between the vertebrobasilar and internal carotid systems
What are the two layers of dura mater?
Outer - periosteal

Inner - meningeal layer
Periosteal layer of dura mater
firmly attached to the skull
Continuous with periosteum of outer skull at the foramen magnum
Meningeal layer of dura mater
Close contact with arachnoid mater
Continuous with the spinal dura mater through the foramen magnum
What are the specializations of the dura maters?
Dural partitions - Inward projections of dura that separate parts of the brain
What are the attachments of the falx cerebri?
Projects downward between the cerebral hemispheres

Attached anteriorly to the Crista galli of the ethmoid bone and the frontal crest of the frontal bone

Posteriorly, attaches and blends with the tentorium cerebelli
What are the attachments of the tentorium cerebelli?
Attached posteriorly to the occipital bone.

Laterally attaches to the superior border of the petrous part of the temporal bone.

Anterior and medial borders are free forming the tentorial notch through which the midbrain passes.
What part of the cerebral hemispheres overlies the tentorum cerebelli?
Posterior lobes
What structures pass through the tentorial notch?
Basilar artery
What is the cavity above the tentorial notch?
What is the area below the tentorial nothc?
What is a transtentorial herniation?
Herniation of medial temporal lobe and uncus through the notch.
What is the falx cerebelli?
Small midline projection of meningeal dura in the posterior cranial fossa.
What are the attachments of the falx cerebelli?
Attached posteriorly to the internal occipital crest of the occipital bone.

Superiorly attached to the tentorium cerebelli.
What is the diaphragma sellae?
Small horizontal shelf of meningeal dura mater that covers the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica.

Infundibulum passes through a small opening in the sella turcica.
What is the arterial supply of the dura mater from the anterior cranial fossa?
Anterior meningeal arteries

Branches of ethmoidal arteries
What is the arterial supply of the dura mater from the middle cranial fossa?
Middle and accessory meningeal

Branches of maxillary artery

Middle enters skull through the foramen spinosum

Accessory enters through the foramen ovale
What is the arterial supply of the dura mater from the posterior cranial fossa?
Branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery
What is the cause of headaches?
Stretching of the dura mater
What is the innervation of the dura mater?
Mostly innervated by the trigeminal nerve except for the posterior fossa

Cervical nerves 2 and 3 innervate the posterior fossa below the tentorium

Fibers enter via foramen magnum, hypoglossal canal and jugular foramen.
What are the two parts to the arachnoid mater?
Avascular membrane

Suparachnoid space
Where do blood vessels travel in the arachnoid mater?
In the subarachnoid space
What are the dural venous sinuses?
Endothelial lined spaces between layers of dura.

Empty into the internal jugular veins via the jugular foramen.
What do the dural sinuses include?
Superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, sigmoid, confluence of sinuses, cavernous sinus, sphenoparietal sinus, superior petrosal, inferior petrosal and basilar sinuses
Where are the cavernous sinuses?
The two cavernous sinuses lie lateral to the body of the sphenoid bone on either side of the sella turcica

What passes through the cavernous sinus?
Internal carotid artery
Abducens nerve
What is in the wall of the cavernous sinus?
Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Trigeminal, ophthalmic division (V1)
Trigeminal, maxillary division (V2)
Where are the lateral ventricles?
Cerebral hemispheres
Where is the 3rd ventricle?
Between the diencephalons
Where is the 4th ventricle?
Region of pons below cerebellum (rhomboid fossa)
What is the foramen of monro?
The area where the lateral ventricles drain into the 3rd
What is the aqueduct of Sylvius?
Cerebral aqueduct connecting 3rd and 4th ventricle
CSF flow
Flows via the foramina of Monro to the third ventricle

From third ventricle, flows via the aqueduct of Sylvius to the 4th ventricle

Leaves the 4th ventricle via the median foramen of Magendie and the two lateral foramina of Lushka into the cisterna magna

Reabsorbed in the arachnoid villi in the superior sagittal sinus
Where is CSF made?
In the lateral ventricles, not uncommon to see it in the 4th ventricle as well
How much CSF is made per day?
500 cc
What does mesencephalon give rise to in the adult?
Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) is remnant of vesicle
What does metencephalon give rise to in the adult?
4th ventricle is remnant of vesicle
What does the mylencephalon give rise to in the adult?
Medulla oblongata
What divides the precentral and postcentral gyri?
Central sulcus
What sulcus divides the temporal lobe away from the others?
Lateral sulcus
What sulcus divides the two hemispheres?
Lateral sulcus
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
Memory (has hippocampus in it)
Where is the primary motor cortex?
In the prefrontal gyrus.

Brodmann's area 4
How many neurons are involved in ascending sensory pathways?
3 neurons.

2nd order neuron is in cord
3rd order neuron is in thalamus to cortex
Where do the striate arteries go?
Deep into the substance of the brain.

Some off the middle cerebral artery.
What are the branches of the anterior cerebral artery?
Callosomarginal artery

Pericallosal artery
What is the branch of the posterior cerebral artery?
Calcarine artery - visual system
What is the falx cerebri and tentorum cerebelli innervated by?
Opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve
What is the medial lesser wing of the sphenoid innervated by?
Maxillary nerve
What is the lateral lesser wing of the sphenoid innervated by?
Mandibular nerve
What is the falx cerebelli and space below the tentorum cerebelli innervated by?
Cervical nerves
Where does the inferior sagittal sinus drain?
Straight sinus
Where does the superior sagittal sinus drain?
Into the confluence of sinuses
Where does the great vein of Galin drain?
Straight sinus
Where does the inferior petrosal sinus drain?
Transverse sinus
Where does the sphenoparietal sinus drain?
Cavernous sinus
What is the torcular herophili?
Confluent sinus