Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Alan Freed

Rock N Roll in the 1950s

primarily marketed to baby boomers, represented a shift in musical styles

Relative economic prosperity, television, Cold War, McCarthyism, Civil Rights MVT, teenagers as consumers

Influences of rhythm and blues and country music on early rock

Also based on R&B and 12-bar blues (Maybellene, Chuck Berry, Long Tall Sally, Little Richard

Dick Clark

Cover Versions of Rhythm and Blues Songs

Shake Rattle and Roll


Ritchie Valens and La Bamba

Mixing latin music with rock n roll

Prototype for the Los Angeles Rock N Roll sound


1. Expected to be virtuosic improvisers

2. Melodies and harmonies much more complex

3. Combos of rhythm sections and 1 or more melody instruments

4. One solo, 2-3 person, rhythm section

5. Harmonic plans could be borrowed from popular songs, or variations on the 12 bar blues

6. Tempo was really fast

7. Accompanying voices could play around rhythms (comping)

8. Solos could include thematic material from anywhere and included tricky harmonies

Charlie Parker

1. Notable saxophonist

2. Could improvise at incredible pace

3. Played around with syncopation and added notes that created extra harmonies

4. Often borrowed phrased and harmonies from other pieces

Dizzy Gillespie

1. Excellent jazz trumpeter, especially for uses of harmony and quotations

2. Roy Eldridge big influence

3. Composer of original tunes, often with Afro-Cuban influences

"Shaw Nuff"


Gillespie- incorporated brief excursions into distant keys and altering notes during solos

Parker- solos used heavy accents and mixture of legato and detached notes to construct phrases in with the beat was "turned around,"-emphasizing beats 2 and 4; also double and quadrupled time temporarily

Hard Bop

Reaction to the intensity of bop

Influences of R & B and gospel

More repetitive, propulsive and danceable

Still has bop instrumentation and focus on improv

Miles Davis

1. Most innovative jazz musician

2. original and lyrical soloist and group leader

3. Solos were relaxed, tuneful and in the middle register

4. Created solos from a small group of melodic ideas

5. Not harmonically daring

Later Miles Davis

1. Group began to discard standard tunes and record improvisations in chordless and tonally ambigious style

2. Helped lead way to "free jazz"

3. Blended acoustic and electronic instruments, melodic jazz improv and typical rock accompaniment

Cool Jazz

1. Depends more on arrangements and is softer and more melodic than bop

2. Larger bands with french horns and oboes

3. Miles Davis with cool jazz:

-softer timbres, relaxed pace, composer-arranger front and center

Modal Jazz

1. Pioneered by Miles Davis

2. Slower paced melodies unfolding over static modal harmonies

3. Mellow and relaxed

Free Jazz

1. Headed by saxophonist Ornette Coleman

2. Experimental concept moving away from standards and towards free forms, atonality and group improv

John Coltrane

1. Avant-Garde jazz

2. Started to look for new timbres by using "fake fingerings" and to extend the upper range of the instruments

3. Style of playing meditative, slow and with vibrato

4. Based on black gospel preaching

5. "Sheets of Sound"

6. Later he was experimental in the area of free jazz

Swing Music

1. Larger ensemble of various brasses, saxes and rhythm section

2. Could have guitar and clarinet

3. Harmony centers around 12-bar blues

4. Tempo fairly steady so rhythms could be swung

5. Not as much improv


Outgrowth of swing

"cutting contests"- to weed out weak players

1. Harmonic ingenuity

2. Unusual dissonances

3. Chromaticism

4. Complicated rhythms

5. Focus on solos, improv

Rhythm section: piano, drums, bass

Dance Crazes in 1960s

1. "The Twist"-based on 12 bar blues, Chubby Checker

Number of dance crazes followed, some lasting meer weeks

Fragmentation in American Musical market?

Emergence of new styles of rock make it a very crowded decade just within that group of styles

Phil Spector

1. Music producer

2. Philles Records

3. "Wall of Sound" recording style- dense and clear at same time

4.Use of strings had critics call his work "teenage symphonies"

5. The Ronettes

6. Huge influence on later producers

Berry Gordy and Motown

1. Most important African-American producer

2. Control of all aspects of productions and marketing

3. The Supremes, Temptations

The Beach Boys

1. Founded by Brian Wilson

2. Important innovator in rock

3. "Good Vibrations"

The Beatles

1. Most important of the "British Invasion" bands

2. Moved from material largely modeled on Buddy Holly to finally very unusual material only recorded (and possible) in a studio

3. Most significant in rock bands

Latin Stream in 1960s Rock

Fusion of rumba and mambo with African American popular music

1. Santamaria

2. "soul jazz"

3. Charanga


Mixture of country music and cosmopolitan music- like Elvis Presley

Derived from Nashville

Patsy Cline

1. Crossover artist

2. Vocals closer to pop but instrumentation closer to country sounds

3. Crooning background, rich tone, emotionally expressive=pop

High register piano like honky tonk

Soul Music

combo of gospel and rhythm and blues

Ray Charles

James Brown

Aretha Franklin

Sam Cooke

Ray Charles

1. Blind

2. Country and pop music combo sometimes

3. R&B sound as well

4. Mix of secular and sacred idioms

5. Mainly soul artist

6. Distinctive vocal timbre

Sam Cooke

1. Began as gospel, went into more secular music later

2. Struggle between gospel and secular

3. Died young

"A Change is Gonna Come"

Aretha Franklin

1. "Lady Soul"

2. Sang gospel

3. Co-wrote a lot of her songs and seen as symbol of female empowerment

James Brown

"Soul Brother Number One"

1. Gospel singer first

2. Highly rhythmic and harmonically static style

3. Flashy and dancy

4. Paved the way for rap "Say it Loud, I'm Black and I'm Proud."

Urban Folk

1. simpler musically

2. acoustic instruments

3. Later included electronics

4. Highly political

5. Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan

1. Began as song writer

2. Known for clear, poetic imagery

3. Rough vocal delivery

4. Lots of protest songs

Counterculture/Psychedelic Rock

1. Highly political-especially in supporting civil rights and the war in Vietnam

2. Dressed and behaved a certain way-against traditional family values

3. Free love and DRUGS

4. Birth control

5. Beatles (Later)

Rolling Stones, Janis Joplin, Hendrix, etc.

Rock on Broadway

1. Rock had a slower start on Broadway

2. Bye Bye Birdie- Elvis, parody of teen culture

3. Hair- psychedelic rock, variety of popular styles, political controversy, drugs, nudity, etc.

4. Several shows had hit singles on pop charts

Tech Advancements of 80s

1. CDS

2. Music technology available at home

3. Walkmans

4. MTV-music videos

5. Digital recording

Michael Jackson

1."Vocal hiccup"- implements in all songs, like gulping for air, helps promote certain motion

2. Pop, r&b, rock, post-disco, funk, etc.

3. Thriller-best selling album of all time

4. Thriller broke down racial barriers in pop music

5. Wider audience

6. Music videos

Bruce Springsteen

1. "Born in the USA"

2. album had signs of hope in the American dream

3. Most of his songs had very socially conscious message, focus on hardships

Paul Simon

1. Album of "Gracleand"-influence of South Africa

2. Was duo, then he split off and became very popular singer-songwriter and guitar player

3. Very interested in exploring music from other cultures


1. Often auto-biographical songwriting, dealing with various themes from love and relationships to self-respect and female power

2. Cultivated image through behaviors, explicit lyrics and videos, controversial subjects, etc.


1. He was everything, singer, writer, arranger, dancer, producer, etc.

2. Flamboyant stage presence, wide vocal range

3. Pioneer of Minneapolis sound-combines rock, R&B, soul, funk, hip hop, disci, jazz, pop, psychedelia

4. Very quick at producing albums

5. Explicit lyrics

Recording Formats

78s-1920s to 1940s


45s-importatnt single format 1950s-1980s

reel-to-reel tape-crucial element in musical production with limited home market

Cassette- miniature tape format

8 tracks-another miniature tape format

CD-emerged about 1980

Progressive Country Music

Songwriter based country music

Waylon Jennings, Willie Nelson


Mixture of Caribbean folk music and American rhythm and blues

Bob Marley


blend of continuing experimentation with Latin ballroom music, Afro-cuban drumming and modern jazz

Eddie Palmieri

Willie Colon

Punk and New Wave

reaction to the institutionalization of rock in the center of American culture

Goes back to rock's rebellious values in punk (The Ramones)and a more artistic reaction in new wave(Talking Heads)


African American reaction to dominance of soft soul in the whiter R&B/pop crossover market

Influenced by James Brown

Strong dance orientation

Catchy melodies

Call and response forms between voice and instruments

Sly and the Family Stone

Hip Hop/ Rap

emerged in 1970s in some of most devestated urban neighborhoods

Musically reflected in DJs working with turntables

Improvised, rhymed poetry over various types of beats

Grandmaster Flash

Musical Theatre

Sondheim and Webber made work more serious and artistic, drawing on multiple musical styles and traditions, serious plots, great spectacle and continuous music

Phantom, Sweeney Todd, Wicked, etc.

Mixed Media

Continuing developments in ballet, opera, and other genres

Music videos, performance art, spectacle events, film scores

New Approaches by Classical composers after WWII:

tonality, chance, indeterminacy, extensions of serialism, new virtuosity, new musical resources, use of Non-western elements, electronic music, texture and process, quotation and collage

Olivier Messiaen

1. organist

2. Composition teacher at Paris Conservatoy

3. Roman Catholic with mystical leanings, "a stance of static contemplation" on a limited set of materials that he juxtaposes

4. birdsong

5. modes of limited transposition

6. static harmonies

7. rhythmic organization by duration of meter

8. additive and non-retrogradable rhythms

9. Emphasis on distinctive sounds and colors

"Quartet for the End of Time"

Benjamin Britten

1. English composer

2. developed direct, dramatic style based on central pitches and other neo-classical ideas

3. Peter Grimes

Samuel Barber

1. American composer who emphasized lyricism and tonality in his music

2. neo-romantic


return to the expressionism and emotion of romantic music


new and unusual ideas

Followed Ives, Crawford Seeger, Cowell, etc

John Cage

1. studied with Cowell and Schoenberg

2. Most influential of the AMerican experimentalists

3. Early works for percussion ensemble

4. prepared piano

5. chance

6. indeterminacy of composition

7. indeterminacy of performance

8. graphic notation

9. "Happenings"-

Morton Feldman


influenced by New York abstract expressionist painters like Pollack

de-emphasis on precise pitches while specifying rhythm and timbre in graphic notation

Graphic notation

representation of music through use of visual symbols outside the realm of traditional music symbols

Indeterminacy of Performance

Ability of a piece to be performed a number of different ways, depending on how things go

either composition or performance

Prepared piano

various materials placed between the strings that alters the pianos timbre

Total Serialism

procedures of serialism being applied to other elements of music, like durations, register, timbre

Manipulating rows using methods, attach numbers to dynamic, rhythms, etc.

Milton Babbitt

Used combinatorial pitch rows- (2 rows whose hexachords contain the same notes) and broke rows into smaller units

Dealt with numbers

Used 12 as point of reference for considering other elements of music

Also like electronic music

Karlheinz Stockhausen

1. Studied with Messiaen

2. Altered his 12 pitches by rotating, or shifting notes from the ends of a given row to the middle of the next row

3. Groundbreaking work in electronic music, aleatory, spatialization

4. Pioneer of electronic music


1. French composer and conductor

2. Helped develop integral serialism, electronic and controlled chance music

3. After 1960s, began to move back to electronic works and large extended works

4. IRCAM- french institue for science about music and sound and avant garde art music

Combinatorial pitch row

2 rows whose hexachords contain the same notes


Work by Stockhausen

Translates to "cross-play"-as serialized patterns cross in middle

Rotates original row to achieve pitch

Duration-specified lengths of time linked to particular pitches

Piano, oboe, bass clarinet and percussion

Harry Partch

1. exploration for new sounds

2. new musical system based on chinese, Native American, Jewish, Christian, African and rural AMerican models with new instruments and 43 notes to the octave

George Crumb

Used traditional instruments for new sounds in programmatic works

"Black Angels"

Musique Concrete

Electronic music explored by French composers like Pierre Schaeffer in 40s

Manipulates chosed sounds through mechanical and electronic means, assisted by invention of tape recorder


Polish Avant-Garde composer, incorporated many extended techniques in works

Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima


electronic music instrument, typically operated by keyboard, that can produce a wide variety of sounds by generating and combining signals of different frequencies


1.term based on paintings by such artists as Mondrian

2. For music its a reaction to the most experimental avant-garde music that was hard for audiences to understand

3. Started in 1960s with composers like La Monte Young and Terry Riley

4. extreme repetition of ostinatos, diatonicism, dramatic changes over a long period, emphasis on rapid notes

Steve Reich


postminimalist works like Tehillim

Philip Glass

student of Nadia Boulanger

Influenced by Ravi Shankar and Hindu music additive rhythmic procedures

Composer of operas and instrumental music

John Adams

Career began in minimalism, but later moved beyond that to embrace other trends like neo-romanticism

"Short Ride in a Fast Machine"


demonstrates how the genre has developed an effort to find and comment on its own history

"The New Accessibility"


simplifying materials and procedures

extra-musical associations

referencing past musical styles

returning to aspects of 19th century romanticism, using elements of popular music

Elliott Carter

Not easily accessible

Wrote in an unapologetic, dissonant and highly sophisticated idiom throughout his life

Music could not be understood on one hearing

Accessible modernism:


"Vertige", combines elements of 19th century virtuosity in solo piano etudes with a fascinating study in descending chromaticism

Accessible Modernism:

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich

studied composition at Julliard with Elliott Carter and others

composed in harsh, austere style that she softened somewhat in 1980s

Tends to build compositions out of opening motives, like Schoenberg

Accessible Modernism:

Arvo Part

Estonian composer who first explosed serialism and neo-classicism, but then studied Gregorian chant and early polyphony

Forged distinctive style

tintinnabuli-comment on bell-like sonorities

Uses one primarily stepwise, diatonic melody with other voices that are note against note counterpoing and mostly include pitches in the tonic triad

Sofia Gubaidulina

Large musical output

Has shown influence of many 20th century techniques and deep belief in mystical power of music


multiple techniques used in music

Like in Rochberg's String Quartet No. 6

Alfred Schnittke

Soviet composer who worked in multiple styles before settling on polystylism with many quotations and stylistic allusions