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75 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 most important orchestral genres?
Concerto & Concerto Grosso
What does concerto mean?
Contest
What does grosso mean?
Many
How do Concertos and Concerto Grossos demonstrate contrast?
1. Soloist vs. orchestra
2. Group of soloists vs. orchestra
3. Virtuosity, brilliance against power, stability
What is a movement?
A self-contained section of a larger work.
How many movements are in a concerto and what are their individual styles?
Three
I. Bright, extroverted, fast
II. Slower, quieter, emotional
III. Similar to I. often faster
Define ritornello form and who performs it.
Ritormello is a contrast of musical ideas, and is orchestral or solo material.
What does ritronello mean?
Return
How does the ritornello form return?
It returns many times to a stable element:
1. Either in whole or in part
2. In various keys
3. Usually in full and in tonic key to end piece
What is the basic style breakdown of ritornello form?
(in ABCD characters)
ABACAD...A
How many movements are used in ritornello form?
only 1
What is the name of music in ritornello form written for a soloist?
Episode
What are the differences between ritornello and episode?
R: Principal theme, solid and forceful, tuneful, has a familiarity, for full orchestra
S: Contrasting section, faster & more brilliant, free and virtuosic, new and surprising, for soloists
What does opus refer to?
The order in which a concerto (etc.) was published.
Opus 4 = Fourth published set
What is "La stravaganza?"
A descriptive title of a set, basically a nickname.
What does No. __ refer to?
The concerto's number wihin the set.
What is a concerto grosso?
A concerto for a group of solo instruments and orchestra. Has 3 fast movements (usually ritornello form), and is played as a contest between the soloists and the orchestra.
Who was J.S. Bach?
He came from a family of musicians, first a church organist, later a court composer. He was prolific, wrote in almost every genre of music (just no opera).
What are the "Brandenburg" Concertos?
A set of 6 concerto grossos by Bach, each uses a different group of solo instruments.
Who wrote the Violin Concerto in G?
Vivaldi
What is the basic layout of the violin concerto in G?
Ritornello theme for the orchestra, alternates between the first and second violins, and there are 3 sub-themes. Only ritornello 1 uses the entire theme, solos become progressively freer and virtuosic. The concerto ends with the literal return of ritornello b,c.
Summarize the Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in 3 points.
1. Solo group = flute, violin, harpsichord
2. Some soloists do double duty
3. Standard 3-movement format
Explain the ritornello theme of the Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, I in 4 points.
1. Homophonic feel
2. Complete theme only at beginning and end
3. Three subsections (a, b, c)
4. Complex melody
What are the solo episodes like in the Brandenburg Concerto No. 5?
Solo group with continuo, and imitative polyphony
What is a cadenza?
An improvised solo passage of indefinite length, typically near the end of a concerto's first movement.
What was unique about the cadenza in the Brandenburg Concerto No. 5?
It was unusually long for the time period (1721)
What are unique about Bach's cadenza's?
They are written out and MUST be played as written.
What is a Fugue?
Systematized imitative polyphony for a fixed number of instrumental lines or voices built on a single principle theme (subject). The subject is "chased" from one voice to another.
What is Bach's "The Art of Fugue?"
Twenty canons and fugues on the same subject - a testament to Bach's skill
What is a Dance Suite?
A grouping of miscellaneous dances all in the same key, usually stylized dances, written for various performing forces. The last dance is always fast.
What is the Baroque Dance Form?
It's a binary form: two sections (A,B), each ending with a strong cadence. Each is repeated (a a b b)
What is an air?
In binary form, scored for strings and coninuo having a spontaneous, singing melody with irregular rhythms, and a stable walking bass.
What is the translation of a french air?
aria or song
What is the Dance and Trio?
A larger-scale ABA form where 2 shorter dances of the same type (A) are grouped with a contrasting middle dance (B - trio). The return of A creates satisfying conclusion.
How does the trio of a dance and trio compare to the melody before?
The trio is softer and lighter than dance A and uses different melody and rhythms.
What is an opera seria?
The principal type of Baroque opera designed to stir powerful emotions (tragic plots from history and mythology) that's almost entirely solo singing.
What is a libretto?
Built from a series of brief texts alternating recitative and aria.
What are the two types of recitative?
Secco recitative and accompanied recitative (reserved for most excited, emotional moments)
What is an aria?
Emotional reflection on action of the plot, usually da capo form (A B A). The repeat of A is ornamented by the singer
What are castrati?
Singers castrated as boys to keep their voices in the soprano/alto range. Biggest virtuoso stars in Italian opera (sang most important male roles, voices highly prized)
Who was George Frideric Handel?
He pursued a career in London and did opera impresario, later turning to oratorio.
What was Julius Caesar and who wrote it?
An Italian opera for London theater of historical fiction written by Handel.
Summarize Baroque sacred music.
Placed special emphasis on choir, borrowed from secular music (opera - recitative, aria, and virtuoso solo singing). Oratorio was the most operatic genre.
What is oratorio?
Basically an opera on a religious subject presented in concert form that incorporated many more choruses than opera.
What was Messiah and who wrote it?
Handel's most famous work which unlike other oratorios was not a real "story," and had anonymous narrators/commentators. The text was entirely from the Bible with episodes from Jesus's life (recitative).
Summarize the chorus, "Glory to God" in 2 points.
1. Recitative and chorus
2. Choir participates in the action
Break down the following 3 phrases in chorus, "Glory to God."
1. Glory to God in the highest
2. and peace on earth
3. Good will toward men
1. high voices, high pitches, rhythmic unison
2. Low voices, low pitches, monophonic; slow, soft, calm, simple
3. Fugal style, imitative entrances, motive intensified in ascending, sequence
What is Handel's famous Hallelujah Chorus?
The famous chorus ends Part II with contrasting textures for each phrase. Homophony - Hallelujah
Polyphony - and he shall reign forever...
What is a cantata?
a work in several movements for voices and instruments (sacred or secular using solo voices, sometimes chorus)
What is a church cantata?
Baroque sacred music genre, Lutheran services in Germany, solo voices used, but usually chorus.
What happened in the late eighteenth century?
1. Enlightenment flourished
2. New Classical styles emerged
3. Vienna was a center for music
4. Rise of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
What was the enlightenment?
An intellectual movement centered in France of reason and science that attacked social injustice and religion. The major figures were Voltair and Rousseau.
Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau
He wrote articles on politics and music, attacked baroque opera wanting simpler, more natural music that focused on real life, and encouraged the development of comic opera.
What was art and entertainment like in the late 18th century?
An age of good living that valued intellect and wit, salons, coffee houses, and public concerts came about. The arts were meant to entertain, to please. The rococo style came about with a similar reflection on music (light, charming, frivolous - divertimento)
What is Neoclassicism?
The influence of Greek and Roman classics - return to emphasis on the "natural," rejection of Baroque solemnity and Rococo frivolity.
What was the neoclassic trend in music?
Austere yet dramatic classical subjects with simple, natural melodies.
Summarize the rise of concerts.
Prompted by the growing middle class, concerts grew throughout Europe giving new importance to orchestral works. Composers began to write for public concerts, but church, court patronage, and opera houses were still important.
What are the two central concepts of the Enlightenment?
The "natural" and "pleasing variety," which appear in all elements of Classical technique, creating a new expressive quality.
What is the rhythm of the Enlightenment?
The "pleasing variety" dominates. New flexibility is valued (gradual in/decrease in energy, sudden contrasts & stops, smooth, continuous motion). Real contrasts become possible.
What are the dynamics of the Enlightenment?
"Pleasing variety" dominates. There is new precision in notating dynamics with gradations of volume, creating a rise in popularity of the pianoforte.
What is the tone color of the Enlightenment?
"Pleasing variety" dominates, increasing attention to tone color as the orchestra is developed into a subtle versatile instrument.
Summarize the classical orchestra.
It's strings at the heart, woodwinds and brass given clearly defined roles, percussion. This offers enormous variety in musical elements and overall effect.
What is the melody of the Enlightenment?
The "natural" dominates, baroque melody now "unnatural."
What is the texture of the Enlightenment?
Homophony - the "natural" dominates. A single melody is key with simple but flexible accompaniment. Continuo fell out of use.
What is classical counterpoint?
Homophony was dominant, but polyphony still offered expressive possibilities - creating tension/intensity, creating contrast with homophony. Contrapuntal texture exists in development.
What are the classical forms?
Sonata, minuet, rondo, theme and variations. They're clarified by repetitions, transitions, and cadences.
When did the symphony come about and what is it?
It originated in the classical period (outgrowth of public concerts), it was a large multi-movement work for orchestra, each movement a distinct musical work of the "pleasing variety" (contrasting tempo, forms, themes, moods)
What are the characteristics of the opening movement?
Moderate to fast tempo, sonata form (optional slow introduction), many moods possible, emphasizes contrast and development.
What are the characteristics of movement II?
Slow tempo, often lyrical and songlike with no standard form.
What are the characteristics of movement III?
Minuet and Trio - moderate tempo, triple meter, minuet form (ternary), stylized dance.
What are the characteristics of movement IV?
Closing Movement - fast to very fast, usually sonata or rondo form, light, tuneful, brilliant
What is a theme?
a complete tune in several phrases
What is a variation?
Changes to the theme on each repetition. Usually the same phrase structure as the theme, creating contrasting moods from the same material.
What is the Minuet Form?
Derived from Baroque minuet and trio.
Minuet (A) |:a:||:b:|
Trio (B) |:c:||:d:|
Minuet (A) a b
What is the Rondo Form?
Simple contrast and return, light, tuneful theme (A) with contrasting episodes.
Some possible schemes:
A B A C A Coda
A B A C A B A
A B A C A D A