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102 Cards in this Set

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Motor Skills
Tasks needing VOLUNTARY head/body/limb movement to achieve goal

aka "actions"
Motor Learning
Re/acquisition or performance enhancement of motor skills

Behavioral &/or neurological changes w/ learning
Motor Control
How the neuromuscular system activates/coordinates muscles/limbs involved in performing a motor skill; enabling coordinated movement
Skill
A task w/ a specific purpose or goal to achieve

Indicates performance quality
4 Characteristics of a Skill
1) Goal to achieve

2) Requires body movement

3) Performed voluntarily

4) Needs to be learned/relearned (practiced)
Movements
Behavioral characteristics of specific limbs that are components of an action or motor skill

*Diff. movements can achieve the same goal; ex: running form
1-Dimension Classification Systems
1) Size of Primary Musculature Required

2) Specificity of where movements of a skill begin/end

3) Stability of Environmental Context (i.e. supporting surface, objects/other people involved)
Size of Primary Musculature Required
- Gross motor skills (use large muscle groups to achieve goal) [low precision]

-Fine motor skills (control small muscles for goal) [high precision]
Specificity of Where Movements of a Skill Begin/End
- Discrete motor skill (defined begin/end points)

- Continuous motor skill (arbitrary begin/end points)

- Serial motor skill (sequence of discrete skills)
Stability of Environmental Context
- Closed motor skill (stationary environment, self-paced, high performer control)

- Open motor skill (nonstable, unpredictable environment, externally paced)
Gentile's 2-Dimensional Taxonomy of Motor Skills
1) Environmental Context

2) Function of the Action
Environmental Context (Gentile's)
1) Regulatory Conditions -- features of environ. context that determine movements needed to perform action [stationary vs. in-motion]

2) Intertrial Variability -- if regulatory conditions during performance are present/absent between attempts [fixed vs. variable]
Function of the Action (Gentile's)
1) Body Orientation -- body stability vs. body transport

2) Object Manipulation -- holding vs. using an object
3 Influential Factors of Motor Learning
1) The Person (learning style, genetics, experience, motivation, etc)

2) Performance Environment (change, distractions, other people, etc)

3) The Skill
Motor Ability
Genetic determinant of achievement potential

Explanations:
-General Motor Ability Hypoth.
-Specificity Hypoth.

ex. Talent Identification
External Validity
Generalizability of participants or the environment of testing
Internal Validity
Manipulation of Results

- Instrumentation/Equipment
- Social Desirability (Hawthorne Effect)
- Group assignment
- Order effects
- Fatigue
Coordination
Patterning of head/body/limb motions relative to patterning of environmental objects/events

i.e. organizing degrees of freedom into efficient movement patterns to achieve a goal

--> Independent of performer's skill level
--> Considered @ specific point in time
Degrees of Freedom
# of independent elements in a control system (body)

# ways each element can act (ex. elbow flexion/extension)
Open-Loop Control System
All info needed to carry out an action as planned contained in initial instruction to effectors; no feedback
Closed-Loop Control System
Feedback compared against reference to enable action to be carried out as planned during its course; can make adjustments
Feedback
Afferent info sent by sensory receipts to control center
Degrees of Freedom Problem
Problem: How can an effective/efficient control system be designed so that a complex system (i.e. body) is constrained to act a certain way?
Motor Program
Memory representation storing information needed to perform an action
Schmidt's Generalized Motor Program (GMP)
- Controls a class of actions w/ common invariant features
- Provides basis for controlling a specific action within class of actions

1) Retrieve program from memory
2) Add movement-specific parameters to meet situation
Invariant Features
Unique set of characteristics in a GMP (fixed)

1) Sequence of actions (order of components)
2) Relative timing (% time spent on a component)
Parameters
Features of a skill that's added to invariant features before a person can perform a skill to meet specific movements of a situation (Flexible)

1) Overall duration
2) Overall force
3) Movement direction
4) Muscle selection
Schmidt's Schema Theory
Motor response schema provides parameters to a GMP

*Explains how people adapt to new environmental contexts
*Solves degrees of freedom problem w/ an executive control operation

1) Initial conditions (present @ start)
2) Response specifications (parameters in execution)
3) Sensory consequences (feedback)
4) Response outcome (success)
Schema
A set of rules serving to provide the basis for a decision

An abstract representation of rules governing movement
Dynamic Pattern Theory
Movement patterns self-organize as a function of the learner/environment/task constraints
Kelso & Schoner (1988)
Spontaneous phase shift in finger movement

*Represents nonlinear changes in movement behavior
Nonlinear Behavior
Behavior changes in abrupt ways in response to a systematic linear increase in value of specific variable
Stability
Behavioral steady state of a system

*System will return spontaneously to stable state if pertubed
Attractor
Preferred behavioral state that's STABLE & ENERGY EFFICIENT

ex. Gait pattern; grip strength; walking vs. running
Absolute Error
Actual vs. Goal errors
Constant Error
Tendency to be directionally biased
Variable Error
Errors in Consistency
Action Preparation
Activity occurring between intention to perform an action and initiation of action
Reaction Time (RT)
Index of preparation required to produce an action
Stages of Processing
1) Stimulus Identification (recog. & identify) [perception]

2) Response Selection (translate sensory input) [decision]

3) Response Programming (organize motor system to produce desired amount) [action]
Simple Reaction Time (RT)
1 stimulus, 1 response
Choice RT
More than 1 stimulus, each stimulus has specific purpose
Task/Situation Characteristics Influencing Preparation
1) # Response choices
2) Predictability of correct response choice
3) Influence of probability of precue correctness
4) Stimulus-Response compatibility
5) Foreperiod Length Regularity
6) Movement complexity
7) Movement accuracy
8) Repetition of movement
9) Time bet. diff. responses to diff. signals
Types of Advance Information
- Warning signal
- Foreperiod
- Precue
- Psychological refractory period
Foreperiod
Time interval between warning signal & stimulus

* 1-4 seconds optimal
* Consistent foreperiod = faster RT
Precue
Environmental clue aiding performer in detecting advance info

*If perceived probability = 80%, action prep biased

*Cost-benefit trade-off
Psychological Refractory Period
Delay in response for 2nd stimulus

Only 1 action can be organized/initiated at a time
Hick's Law
Law: RT increases as # stimulus-response choices increase
Reducing Uncertainty
- Systematically decrease # possible response alternatives
- Assess potential success of options
- Look for min # of relevant characteristics
Increasing Uncertainty
- Increase repertoire
- Fake out opponents
Stimulus-Response Compatibility
Natural relationship between stimulus & response choices

*Faster RT as relationship is more compatible

Ex: Stroop Effect (color names)
Ex: Stove burners and controls
Motor Control Activities during Action Prep
- Postural preparation (muscles activate b4 movement execution to ensure stability)
- Limb movement characteristics (direction, trajectory)
- Force to manipulate object
- End-state comfort control (ex. grabbing mug)
Response Time
Reaction Time + Movement Time
Attention
Consciousness, awareness, & cognitive effort relating to skill performance
Bottleneck Theory
Limited attentional capacity; filter only allows certain info to be processed
Central Resource Capacity Theories
-Flexible attentional capacity
-Consider individual, task & environment

ex. Novice vs. expert, arousal, fatigue, simple vs. complex task

[circle of attentional capacity, can't go outside circle]
Multiple Resource Theories
Tasks demanding attention from same resource pool are more difficult
Cell Phones & Driving Studies
(1)
Hands-free (a) vs. Hand-held (b) vs. no phone (c)
--> Increase RT needed to break (a,b)
--> 2x more likely to miss signal (a,b)
--> No sig. dif. bet. a & b

(2)
Hands-free (a) vs. Talk to passenger (b) vs. No convo (c)
--> Increase driving errors (a)
--> No sig. dif. bet. b & c
Dual-Task Procedure
Assess degree of interference when simultaneously performing 2 tasks

Primary: What are the attentional demands?
Secondary: Task causing interference
Selective Attention
How we allocate processing resources
Relevant vs. Irrelevant cues

ex. Cocktail party phenomenon
Attentional Focus
Width & Direction of attention to specific characteristics in a performance environment/action prep activities
Attentional Styles
1) Broad-External
2) Broad-Internal
3) Narrow-External
4) Narrow-Internal
Action Effect Hypothesis
Directing attention to movement outcomes rather than movements themselves leads to increased performance

ex. Automaticity
Arousal
General state of excitability

--> Continuum of intensity
--> Pleasant/unpleasant events

*Inverted-U Hypothesis
Factors of an Optimal Arousal Level
1) Task
- Gross vs. fine motor skills
- Cognitive complexity (decision making) [high = low arousal]

2) Learner
- Trait anxiety (negative)
- Zone of optimal functioning (ppl have optimal level regardless of task)
- Motivation

3) Environment
- Perception of whether you can meet situational demands
Cue-Utilization Hypothesis
1) Low Arousal Level
--> wide/broad perceptual field (attention to irrelevant cues)

2) High Arousal Level
--> Perceptual narrowing (miss relevant cues)

3) Moderate Arousal Level
--> Pick up relevant cues, exclude irrelevant cues
Transfer of Learning
Influence of previous experiences on performing/learning a new skill
Positive Transfer
Previous experience beneficially facilitates learning of new skill
Identical Elements Theory
Similarities of skill components and context components for transfer
Transfer-Appropriate Processing Theory
Similarities in cognitive processing for transfer
Negative Transfer
Previous experience hinders learning of new skill or performing a skill in a new context

ex. Driving on the other side of the road
Memory Representation
Familiar environment triggers preferred response

- Cognitive confusion created by unfamiliar context or required response
Zero Transfer
Experience w/ one skill has no influence on learning another skill
Fostering Positive Transfer
- Skill progression
- Training aids
- Simulation training
- Skill referred to needs to be well-learned
- Use in initial stage
Bilateral Transfer
Practice w/ 1 limb enhances skill acquisition w/ opposite limb on same task

Direction:
1) Asymmetric - Increased amount of transfer from 1 limb to another
2) Symmetric - Similar transfer amounts regardless of which one 1st

*Preferred to non-preferred has greatest transfer
Explanations for Bilateral Transfer
Cognitive Explanation: info related to what's need to achieve goal; relevant to skill performance regardless of skill used

Motor Control Explanation:
- GMP (practice w/ 1 limb estab. a GMP, Muscle selection a parameter)
- Dynamic Pattern Theory (movement patterns learned w/o references to limb use)
- Neural signals from CNS (EMG activity in non-performing limb)
Tactile Sensory System
Influences:
-Accuracy
-Consistency
-Force adjustments while holding object
-Movement distance
Proprioception
*Perception of body/head/limb position*

1) Golgi-Tendon Organs (GTOs)
--> Detect changes in muscle tension/force

2) Muscle Spindles
--> Detect changes in muscle length/velocity "stretch reflex"

3) Joint Receptors
--> Detect changes in joint angles, damage protection

4) Vestibular apparatus
--> Respond to changes in posture/balance
Proprioception & Performance
- Aids in efficiency & regulation of motor control
- Info before movement initiation
- Movement evaluation & correction
- Isn't developed by novices
Lack of Proprioception
- Increased dependence on vision
- Deafferentiation (afferent neural pathways removed)
Visual Sensory System
70% of sensory receptors in EYES
- Vision overrides proprioception when they provide conflicting info
Photoreceptors
Converts images into nerve impulse

1) Rods: responds to low levels of light (retinal periphery)

2) Cones: responds to bright light (fovea in center of eye)

*More rods than cones
2 Visual Pathways
1) Focal Vision
- Uses central visual field
- Voluntary control
- Cones

2) Ambient Vision
- Uses central/peripheral visual field
- Subconscious level
- Rods (higher reliance on ambient vision)
Binocular Vision
Looking w/ 2 eyes (monocular = 1 eye)

Helps w/ depth perception, can intercept moving objects
Eye Dominance
- Same-side dominant
- Cross dominant
Performance in Aiming Tasks
Better task performance w/ both eyes open
Quiet Eye
Gaze fixation prior to an action
--> A single, critical location
--> Longer = better

ex. Golfers look @ back of ball for 2-3s
ex. Free throw shooters fixated on hoop longer
Visual Search
Expert vs. Novice

Soccer: position/movement of other players, hips (Novices look @ ball)

Baseball: pitcher's release point (Novice looks @ head)

Eye on the ball: monitor flight initially, then leave gaze in front
Bimanual Coordination
Motor skills requiring simultaneous use of 2 arms

1) Symmetric (ex. rowing)
2) Asymmetric (ex. tennis serve)
Speed-Accuracy Trade-off
Speed influenced by movement accuracy demands
Fitts' Law (1954)
Movement time increases when
- Increase distance bet. targets
- Decrease width of targets

Index of Difficulty
Latash & Jaric (2002)
Index of Difficulty increased based on cup size and amount of liquid in cup
Prehension
3 Components:
1) Transport
2) Grasp
3) Object manipulation
Point of No Return
In speed-accuracy, it is past the stop/inhibition signal
Violations of the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff
1) Temporal accuracy (can movement be completed @ appropriate time)
--> Speed up move = decrease error
--> Greater accuracy = quicker MT

2) Forceful Movements
Coincidence Anticipation
Produce movements that require...
-Spatial accuracy
-Temporal accuracy
-Force
-Speed
Coincidence Point
Ideal place where movement coincides w/ object
Tau
Optic variable that determines time-to-contact
-Size of retinal image & rate of enlargement

Faster enlargement = faster object is approaching
Hubbard & Seng (1954)
Striking & role of vision

-Synchronize start of stride w/ pitch release
-Initiate swing based on speed of pitch
-Swing speed consistent

**Vision used to control duration of stride & initiation of swing
Tau & Catching
Phases of Catching:
1) Move arm & hand toward object
2) Shape hand
3) Grasp

-Information needed in advance
-Visual contact time w/ moving object
--> Initial & final flight phase
Smyth & Marriott (1982)
Vision of the Hands
- Hand-positioning erros
- More expertise = less need to see hands
Role of Vision in Locomotion
-Making contact w/ our feet
--> Tau used to make stride-length adjustments
--> Gait regulation doesn't depend on expertise
--> Visual cues for gait rehab.

-Avoid obstacles
--> Size of object, how solid it is
--> Type of step-pattern alteration