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400 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


one-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics


a type of pathogenic bacteria


a type of bacteria that lives on dead matter


syphilis and Lyme disease are caused by


- round shape

- rarely show active mobility


- corkscrew shape

- capable of movement


- rod shaped

- capable of movement


bacteria that are arranged like a string of beads and cause strep throat and blood poisoning

Mycobacterium fortuitum

the bacteria that caused concern in 2000 in the pedicure industry


slender, hair-like extensions with which certain bacteria move about


bacteria cells reproduce by dividing into two new cells


during their inactive stage, certain bacteria such as anthrax and tetanus bacilli, form _______.


molds, mildews, and yeast


pus forming bacteria that grow in clusters like grapes


grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia

Binary fission

occurs when bacteria reach their largest size, and divide into two new cells called daughter cells.

Tinea barbae

a fungal infection also known as barber's itch

Tinea capitis

a fungal infection of the scalp characterized by red papules, or sports, at the opening of hair follicles

Tinea pedis

a ringworm fungus of the foot


transmitted from one person to another


a disease marked by inflammation of the liver

Acquired Immune Defeciency Syndrome (AIDS)

breaks down the body's immune system


a parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in the cells of a biological organism


organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (host) while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism (ex. head lice)


a contagious skin disease caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin


removing pathogens and other substances fro tools or surfaces


surface of tools or other objects that are not free form dirt, oil, and microbes

Once a day

The solution used in a wet sanitizer should be changed...

Ultraviolet (UV) sanitizers

useful for storing disinfected implements


the third or lowest level of decontamination (washing hands)

Twenty seconds

the minimum amount of time for washing hands

Nonporous surfaces

surfaces that may be disinfected

Sodium hypochlorite

technical name for bleach


a product that is not considered safe for salon use because it causes a number of health problems

After each client

how often foot spas should be disinfected

Every two weeks

how often foot spas should be filled with a disinfectant and left over night

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QUATS)

effectively disinfects implements in ten minutes

Phenolic disinfectants

- form of formaldehyde

- high pH

- can damage plastics, rubber, and rust metals


the only level of decontamination that kills bacterial spores


created to regulate and enforce safety and health standards

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

important information for products such as storage requirements

Universal precautions

the guidelines and controls that require employer and employee to assume that all human blood and fluids are infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens

Exposure Incident

1. Stop the service

2. Put on gloves

3. Stop bleeding by applying pressure

4. Clean the injured area with an antiseptic

5. Bandage the cut

6. Clean work area using disinfectant
7. Discard all single-use contaminated objects by double bagging

8. Before removing gloves, make sure all multiuse tools are immersed in disinfectant

9. Remove gloves. Seal in double bag. Wash hands.

10. Recommend the client see a physician if any signs of swelling, pain, or irritation occurs


the study of the functions and activities performed by the body structures


the study of body structures that can be seen with the naked eye


the science of the minute structures of organic tissues


basic unit of all living things


a colorless jellylike substance containing food elements such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, an water


the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus

Cell membrane

a structure that encloses the protoplasm


the dense protoplasm found in the center of the cell


constructive metabolism in which molecules are built from smaller ones


the phase of metabolism in which complex compounds are broken down into smaller ones


is a chemical process that takes place in living organisms, through which cell are nourished and carry out their activities

60 to 90 percent

Body tissues are composed of ______ percent water

Connective tissue

fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body

Adipose tissue

technical term for fat

Epithelial tissue

a protective covering on body surfaces, such as skin, mucous membranes, the tissue inside the mouth, the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and the glands.

Muscle tissue

contracts and moves various parts of the body

Nerve tissue

carries messages to and from the brin

206 bones

the skeletal system is composed of _____


the study of the anatomy, structure, and function of bones


the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton; they are either movable or nonmovable


an oval, bony case that protects the brain

Facial skeleton

the framework of the face that is composed of 14 bones

Occipital bone

the hindmost bone, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape

Parietal bones

form the sides and top of the cranium

Temporal bones

form the sides of the head in the ear region

Ethmoid bone

light, spongy bone between the eye sockets; forms part of the nasal cavities

Sphenoid bone

joins all of the bones in the cranium together

Ethmoid and sphenoid bone

not affected when performing services of massage

Nasal bones

form the bridge of the nose

Lacrimal bones

small, thin bones located at the front inner wall of the orbits

Zygomatic bones

aka malar or cheek bones; form the prominence of the cheeks


bones of the upper jaw


lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face

Hyoid bone

u-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles

Cervical vertebrae

the seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column located in the neck region


chest or pulmonary trunk, consists of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae


the twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax


the shoulder blade, or large,flat, triangular bone of the shoulder


the breastbone, or the flat bone that forms the ventral support of the ribs


the collarbone, or the bone that joins the sternum and scapula


the uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending form the elbow to the shoulder


the inner and larger bone in the forearm, located on the side of the little finger.


the smaller bone in the forearm on the side of the thumb


the wrist, composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments


the bones of the palm of the hand, containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges


or digits; the bones of the fingers or toes


the heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee


the larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee (the bump on the big toe side of the ankle)


the smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee (the bump on the little toe side of the ankle)


the accessory bone or kneecap


ankle bone

26 bones

the foot is made up of


long, slender bones similar to the metacarpal of the hand


the study of the structure, function, and diseases of the muscles

40 percent

Muscles make up about _____ of the body's weight

Striated muscles

attached to bones and are voluntary or consciously controlled

Nonstriated muscles

involuntary muscles that function automatically without conscious will; found in internal organs

Cardiac muscles

involuntary muscles of the heart


the part of the muscle that does not move and is closest to the skeleton


the middle part of the mscle


the part of the muscle that moves and is farthest from the skeleton

insertion to originl

Pressure in massage is usually directed from


muscle that covers the top of the skull


back portion of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backwards


front portion of the epicranius; muscle that raises the scalp backwards

Epicranial aponeurosis

the tendon that connects the occipitalis and frontalis muscles

auricularis superior

muscle above the ear that draws it upwards

auricularis anterior

muscle in front of the ear that draws it forward

auricularis posterior

muscle behind the ear that draws it backward

masseter and temporalis

chewing muscles

buccinators muscle

thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw; expels air between the lips

depressor labii inferioris muscle

the muscle surrounding the lower lip; lowers the lip and draws it to one side

Levator anguli oris muscle

raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inwards

levator labii superioris muscle

surrounds the upper lip and dilates the ostrils

mentalis muscle

elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin

Orbicularis oris muscle

flat band of muscle around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips

risorius muscle

draws the corner of the mouth out and back

triangularis muscle

pulls down the corner of the mouth

zygomaticus major & minor muscles


orbicularis oculi muscle

ring muscle around the eyesockets; closes eyes

corrugator muscle

the muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically

Procerus muscle

covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose


straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line


the muscle of the wrist


muscle that turns the hand inward


muscle that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward


draw the fingers away from each other


the muscles that draw the fingers together

Extensor digitorum longus

bends the foot up and extends the toes

Extensor halluces longus

extends the big toe and flexes the foot

Tibialis anterior

covers the front of the shin; bends the foot upward and inward

Peroneus longus

covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward

Peroneus brevis

originates on the lower surface of the fibular and bends the foot down and out


attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down


originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down

Latissimus dorsi

large, flat, triangular muscle covering the lower back

Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor

muscles of the chest that assist swinging movements of the arm

Serratus anterior

muscles of the chest that assists in breathing and raising the arm


the muscle that covers the back of the neck and the upper and middle region of the back


the muscle that produces the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm


large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint


large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm

Circulatory system

controls the steady circulation of blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels

Blood vascular system

consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

Lymph ascular system

consists of the lymph, lymphatics, lymph nodes, and other structures


carries waste and impurities away from the cells

Four valves

The interior of the heart contains four chambers and ______________.

72-80 bpm

The normal heartbeat rate in a resting state is _______.


carry oxygenated blood away from heart to capillaries


connect smaller arteries to the veins; bring nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials


carry blood containing waste products from capillaries back to the heart

8 to 10

the number of pints of blood in the human body

80 percent

Blood is about ____ percent water

Red blood cells

carry oxygen to the body cells

White blood cells

destroy disease-causing germs


contribute to the blood clotting process


carries food and secretions to the cells and carries carbon dioxide away from the cells

Common carotid arteries

main source of blood supply to the head, face, and neck

Internal and external jugular

two principal veins on each side of the neck


largest artery in the body


the iron protein that gives blood its bright red color

Endocrine system

comprises of glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the body


specialized organs that remove certain elements from the blood and convert them into new compounds


insulin, adrenaline, and estrogen

Excretory system

purifies the body by eliminating waste matter


muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region

Integumentary system

consists of the skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails

Primary function of the nervous system

coordinating all the many activities that are performed both inside and outside of the body

Brain, spinal cord, and nerves

principle components of the nervous system

Central nervous or cerebrospinal system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system

Three main subdivisions of the nervous system

Central nervous system

spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves

Autonomic nervous system

controls the involuntary muscles, such as the glands, blood vessels, and heart

Peripheral nervous system

carries impulses, or messages, to and from the central nervous system


the largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body


nerve cell


nerve fibers that receive impulses from the other neurons


sends impulses away form the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles

Motor or efferent nerves

carry impulses from the brain to the muscles

Sensory or afferent nerves

carry impulses from the sense organs to the brain

Fifth cranial nerve

trifacial or trigeminal nerve

Smaller occipital nerve

affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear

Greater auricular nerve

affects the face, ears, neck, and parotid gland

Greater occipital

affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head

Cervical cutaneous

affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone


Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur


chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide


or redox; a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized


chemical process by which oxygen is subtracted form or hydrogen is added to a substance

Exothermic reaction

occurs when heat is released

Pure substance

a chemical combination of matter in definite or fixed proportions

Physical combination

a mixture of matter in any proportion


a blend of two or more liquids or a solid dissolved in a liquid


the dissolved substance in a solutionS


the substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution with no change in chemical composition

Miscible liquids

mutually soluble

Immiscible liquids

not capable of being mixd


solid particles distributed in a liquid medium, tending to separate over time


a mixture of two or more immiscible substances


an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together


water loving; head


oil loving; tail


an atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge






organic chemistry studies substances that contain _____


There are about ____ naturally occurring eleents

6.5 to 7.5

neutral pH range

Direct current

a constant, even flowing current that travels in one direction

Alternating current

a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then the opposite


pressure or force


resistance of an electric current


strength of an electric current


how much energy is being used per second


prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit

Circuit breaker

automatically interrupts an electric circuit at the first indication of overload


electronic facial treatments


various currents used in facial and scalp traetments


negative or positive pole of an electric currentAnode






softens and emulsifies grease deposits and blackheads in the hair follicle (acne, milia, and comedones)


forces acidic substances into deeper tissues from the positive toward the negative pole


introduces water soluble products into the skin


forces liquids into tissues from the negative toward the positive pole

Tesla high-frequency current

a thermal or heat-producing current (aka violet ray)


the distance between the peaks of two successive waves of electromagnetic radiation

35 percent

Visible light makes up ____ of natural sunlight


shortest wavelength


longest wavelength

Vitamin D

natural sunlight produces _______

Hair follicle

tube-like depression in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root

Hair bulb

thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root

Dermal papilla

small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle; provides nutrients

Arrector pili

involuntary muscle fiber in the skin; responsible for goose bumps

Sebaceous glands

oil glands that are connected to the hair follicles


an oily substance which lubricates the hair and skin


outermost layer of hair; single layer of transparent, scale-like cells that overlap


middle layer of hair; fibrous protein core formed by elongated cells; contains melanin pigment


innermost layer of hair; composed of round cells


the process during which newly formed cells in the hair mature

90 percent

Hair is _______ protein.

Amino acids

units of structure that build proteins

Peptide bonds or end bonds

chemical bonds that link two amino acids

Polypeptide chain

a long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; helix shaped

Hydrogen bonds

physical side bonds that are easily broken by water or heat

Salt bonds

weak, temporary cross-links that can be broken by changes in pH

Disulfide bonds

chemical bonds that join the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine amino acids; only broken by permanent waves


brown/black color


yellow/red color

Vellus (lanugo) hair

short, fine, downy, and unpigmented hair found on areas of the body considered to be hairless

Terminal hair

long, thick, pigmented hair


growing phase


transition phase


resting phase

Androgenetic alopecia

the progressive shrinking or miniaturization of terminal hair, converting it to vellus hair. Known as male pattern baldness in men.

Alopecia areata

sudden hair loss in round or irregular patches


gray hair

Ringed hair

alternating bands of gray and dark hair

Hypertrichosis (hirsuties)

superfluous hair; characterized by growth of terminal hair in areas of the body that normally only grow vellus hair


split ends

Trichorrhexis nodosa

formation of nodular swellings along the shaft


beaded hair

Fragilitas crinium

brittle hair



Pityriasis capitis simplex

characterized by a dry, itchy scalp and small white scales; caused by a fungus called malassezia

Pityriasis steatoides

greasy or waxy dandruff



Tinea favosa

dry, sulfur-yellow, cuplike crusts on the scalp called scutula; gives off an odor


boil; an acute staphylococci infection of a hair follicle that produces constant pain


an inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci, larger than a furuncle

Hair texture

thickness or diameter of the individual hair strands (coarse, medium, fine)

Hair density

the number of strands within one square inch


ability of the hair to absorb moisture


ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking

Hair stream

hair flowing in the same direction


hair forms in a circular pattern


a tuft of hair that stands straight up


defines form and space

Horizontal lines

create width

Vertical lines

create length and height

Diagonal lines

emphasize or minimize facial features or create interest

Curved lines

soften a design


curved lines repeating in opposite directions


mass or general outline of a hairstyle (volume)


the area surrounding the form or the area the hairstyle occupies


refers to wave patterns

Smooth wave patterns

accent the face or narrow a round head shape

Curly wave patterns

take attention away from the face or soften square/rectangular features

Light and warm colors

create the illusion of volume

Dark and cool colors

recede or move in toward the head


establishing equal or appropriate proportions to create symmetry


a regular or recurrent pattern of movement in a design


or focus; what draws the eye first


the creation of unity in a design; holds all the elements of the design together

Round face

height or volume on top and closeness or no volume at the sides

Square face

create volume in the area between the temples and jaw

Triangular face

volume at the temples and some height on top

Oblong face

add volume on sides; no height on top

Base sections

subsections of a panel based on size of the roller

Croquignole method

hair is wrapped from ends to scalp

Spiral technique

hair is wrapped at an angle to form a coil

Alkaline solutions

soften and swell the hair and open the cuticle


breaks disulfide bonds in the cortex

Thioglycolic acid

causes reduction in perm solutions

Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)

the main ingredient in alkaline perms

Alkaline waves

pH between 9.0 and 9.6

True acid waves

pH of 4.5 to 7.0 (requires heat)

Acid-balanced waves

pH of 7.8 to 8.2

Exothermic waves

a chemical reaction heats the solution and speeds processing

Endothermic waves

activated by outside heat source


stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form

Thio relaxers

main ingredient is ammonium thioglycolate (ATG); usually has a pH above 10

Hydroxide relaxers

ex. sodium, potassium, lithium, or guanidine hydroxide; has a pH of 13.0 or more, lanthionization (a sulfur atom is removed from a disulfide bond and converted into a lanthionine bond)

Sodium hydroxide relaxers

lye-based; oldest and most common

Lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide relaxers

no-mix, no-lye relaxers

Law of color

a system for understanding color relationships; when combining colors, you will always get the same result from the same combination

Temporary color

easily shampoos form the hair; does not penetrate cuticle layer

Semipermanent color

adds subtle color; tones prelightened hair; stains cuticle layer; non-oxidizing

Demipermanent color

blends gray hair; enhances natural color; tones hair; refreshes faded color; filler in color correction

Permanent color

changes existing color; covers gray

Gradual haircolor

or metallic; contains metal salts that change the hair color gradually

Natural haircolor

or vegetable/henna; made from leaves or bark; weak results

Hydrogen peroxide developers

oxidizing agents or catalysts; pH between 2.5 and 4.5


or cuticle skin; outermost layer; the thinnest, forms protective covering, contains no blood vessels, and has nerve endings


or derma, corium, cutis, or true skin; inner layer of the skin

Stratum corneum

horny, outermost layer

Stratum lucidum

clear, transparent layer

Stratum granulosum

granular layer

Stratum spinosum

Spiny layer

Stratum germinativum

basal cell layer; deepest layer; contains melanin

Papillary layer

outer layer; contains small cone-shaped projections (papillae) and nerve fiber endings

Reticular layer

supplies skin with oxygen and nutrients

Subcutaneous tissue

or adipose tissue; gives contour to the body and contains fats for energy


a fibrous protein that allows skin to stretch and contract


a protein base that forms elastic tissue

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands

regulates body temperature and helps eliminate waste

Sebaceous (oil) glands

secretes sebum that lubricates skin and preserves softness of hair


Skin that is slightly moist, soft, flexible, smooth, and slightly acidic


blister containing watery fluid


closed, abnormally developed sac containing fluid or pus


small, discolored spot or patch such as freckles that are neither raised or sunken


a solid bump larger than .4 inches that can be easily felt


or pimple; elevation of the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus


raised, inflamed pimple


abnormal rounded, solid lump


abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells


small blister with clear fluid


an itchy, swollen lesion (hives)


dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing (scab)


skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping


a crack in the skin penetrating into the dermis (chapped lips)


a thick scar from excessive growth of fibrous tissue


a thin plate of epidermal flakes

Scar or cicatrix

a light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin


an open lesion with pus


benign, keratin-filled cysts

Seborrheic dermatitis

the inflammation of the sebaceous glands


chronic inflammatory congestion of the cheeks and nose


lack of perspiration

Bromidrosis or Osmidrosis

foul-smelling perspiration


excessive perspiration


pink eye


an inflammatory skin condition


acute, chronic lesions (dry or moist)


weeping lesions


common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease


the absence of melanin pigment


increased pigment in spots




light, abnormal patches

Basal cell carcinoma

the most common type of skin cancer and the least severe; characterized by light or pearly nodules

Squamous cell carcinoma

characterized by scaly red papules or nodules (skin cancer)

Malignant melanoma

the most serious form of skin cancer; often characterized by black or dark brown patches

Intrinsic skin aging factors

genetic aging, gravity, and facial expressions


cream products that are rubbed off, removing dead skin cells through friction


technical term for nails

1/10 of an inch

average growth of a nail per month

Eggshell nails

noticeably thin, white plate and are more flexible than normal

Beau's lines

furrows or depressions that run across the width of the nail


a condition in which the living skin splits around the nail


white spots; whitish discoloration of nails, usually caused by injury to the base of nail or nail matrix


indicated by darkening of nails; caused by localized area of increased pigment cells


bitten nails


split or brittle nails with lengthwise ridges; caused by injury to matrix

Plicatured nail

a highly curved nail plate; caused by injury or heredity

Nail pterygium

abnormal damage to the eponychium or hyponychium that occur when skin is stretched by the nail plate

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

bacterial infections that cause discoloration of the nail


nail infections start out as ________ spots


any deformity or disease of the nail


inflammation of the nail matrix with formation of pus and shedding of the nail


ingrown nails


lifting of the nail plate without shedding


separation and falling off of a nail from the nail bed

Nail psoriasis

causes tiny pits or severe roughness on the surface of the nail plate


bacterial inflammation of the tissues surrounding the nail

Pyogenic granuloma

severe inflammation of the nail in which a lump of red tissue grows up from the nail bed to the nail plate