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41 Cards in this Set

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This class of antibiotics is in the Penam group and inhibits transpeptidation:
What are the three things that penicillin needs to function in the bacterial cell?
1. Transpeptidases
2. Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs)
3. Autolytic Enzyme
What are the two major transpeptidases of bacteria?
PBPs 1a and 1b
Which bacteria have developed penicillin resistance through production of B-lactamase?
Staphlococcus sp
Which three bacteria have gained penicillin resistance through alteration of their PBPs?
1. Strep pnumoniae
2. Neisseria gonorrhea
These members of the 1st group of penicillins are good against Gram + cocci like S. pyogenes and A. haemolyticum:
Penicillin G and V
These are the members of the 2nd group of penicillins which are useful against producers of B-lactamase and gram + cocci (Streptococci).
Oxacillins (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin), Methicillin, Nafcillin and Temocillin - Ordinary Men Never Take 2nd
Name two important B-lactamsase scavengers:
1. Clavulinic Acid
2. Sulbactams
These two members of the 3rd group of penicillins are good for gram - but are not B-lactamase resistant and may need a scavenger:
1. Ampicillin
2. Amoxicillin
These two antibiotics bind to Dala Dala, are good for gram + infections and are resistant to Beta lactamase:
Vancomycin and Teicoplanin
This Beta Lactam is good against only gram - bacteria and is used for enterobacteria. It cannot bind the PBPs of Gram +
Monobactam (Aztreonam:synthetic derivative)
This Beta Lactam is good against gram - and + and has great spectum of coverage. Is useful against most medically relevant infectious organisms and is resistant to Beta Lactamase
Thienamycins (imipenem)
These antibiotics bind the terminal D-ala D-ala of cell wall peptidoglycan and won't allow cross bridges
Vancomycin and Teicoplanin
This antibiotic inhibits the assembly of the 70s ribosome and is the first antibiotic in a completely new class in 35yrs. Important against S. aureus
Oxazolidinone (Zyvox)
This group of antibiotics has many important members, binds to the 30s ribosome, is best against gram - bacteria and forms streptomycin monosomes:
Aminoglycosides (GNAT)
Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, and Netilmicin
This group of antibiotic acts against the 30s ribosome, is bacteriostatic (binds S4 and S18) and interferes with aminoacyl tRNA entering the acceptor site
Tetracyclines (Doxycycline and Minocycline)
How is resistance to tetracyclines achieved by bacteria?
Through efflux mechanism
This family of antibiotics are highly used, broad spectrum, useful against gram - and +, and affect the 30s ribosome:
Tetracyclines (Doxy and Mino)
Antibiotics that have this mechanism bind L15 and 16 subunits, inhibit transpeptidation, are best against gram + and are mosly bacteriostatic
Antibiotics against 50s ribosome
What are the antibiotics that mainly act against the 50s ribosome?
Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, and Chloramphenicol
It only takes 50 SECCC
What is the antibiotic for which aplastic anemia is a risk?
For which group is resistance gained by alteration of the ribosome or acetylation of the antibiotic?
50s ribosomes - Chloramphenicol is one that gets acetylated
This antibiotic is specific for the RNA polymerase of bacterial cells, binding to the beta subunit of this enzyme and blocking mRNA initiation:
How is resistance to rifampin gained?
Through mutation of the Beta subunit of RNA polymerase
This antibiotic is especially useful against TB, leprosy, Legionella, Haemophilus, and most other gram + species
This antibiotic is useful for treatment of infections with anaerobic bacteria and some protozoa (amebiasis and giardiasis). It is synthetic and broken down into free radicals.
This group of antibiotics block DNA replication by inhibiting a subunit of DNA gyrase in bacteria.
Inhibits gyrase/helicase and is used to treat gram - uncomplicated urinary tract infections
Nalidixic Acid
These antibiotics inhibit DNA gyrase/helicase, have gram - and gram + activity and are useful against pseudomonas. Generally they are ideal drugs for UTIs
Norfloxacin and Ciprofloxacin
This antibiotic affects the bacterial cell membrane, targeting the gram -, resulting in leakage and is useful against pseudomonas
Polymyxin E
This is a macrolide antibiotic with a specificity towards fungi. It is used in situations of deep mycoses and is extremely toxic. Acts by binding ergosterol and creating pores.
Amphoterocin B
This is a topical antibiotic that acts against fungi by binding ergosterol, is toxic.
These broad spectrum antifungals inhibit ergosterol synthesis and cause lethal leakage of the cell. They are members of the azole family and have some toxicity.
Imidazoles (Miconazole and Ketoconazole)
This antifungal functions similarly to azoles but has lipophilic activity against a broad spectrum of yeasts and fungi
Triazole (itraconazole)
Name the antibiotics that affect intermediary metabolism:
Aminosalicylic Acid
ASIST in killing bacteria.
These antibiotics afftect intermediary metabolism by inhibiting folate synthesis through competitive inhibition of PABA
Aminosalicylic acid
This antibiotic interferes with intermediate metabolism of bacteria by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase
Trimethoprim - Has UTI synergy with Sulphonoides
This competetive inhibitor of PABA is used against TB
Aminosalicylic Acid
This competetive inhibitor of PABA is used against leprosy
This competetive inhibitor of PABA is used against Gram - and + UTIs
Sulphomomides - has synergy with Trimethoprim
This antibiotic inhibits mycolic acid, is used for TB because it inhibits wall formation in the Acid fast bacteria