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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what is a metabolism

sum of all chemical reactions w/in a living organism

what is a catabolism

releases energy, usually hydrolytic

is resporation catabolic or anabolic


what is anabolism

stores energy

is photosynthesis and protein synthesis catabolic or anabolic


what are enzymes

biological catalysts

what are enzymes made out of

proteins, some coenzymes

what are some examples of coenzymes

Iron, copper, magnesium, zinc, calcium, and vitamins

what are exoenzymes

secreted to outside the cell (extracellular)

what is an example of an exoenzyme

digestive enzymes

what are endoenzymes

stay inside the cell, intracellular

what are the 2 types of endoenzymes

1. synthesis of cell components and food reserves

2. bioenergetics

what are constitutive enzymes

present all the time in the cell

what are inducible enzymes

produced only in the presence of certain chemicals called inducers, produced when needed

how are enzyme functions classified

1. based on sites of activities

2. based on presence in the cell

what factors can affect enzyme activites

temp, pH, sunstrate concentration, inhibitors present

what types of enzyme inhibitors are there

competitive, noncompetitive, detecting enzyme activity

whar are competitive enzymatic inhibitors

2 substrates compete for same active sight

what kind of enzymatic inhibitors are competitive

sulfa drugs

what do noncompetitive enzymatic inhibitors do

bind to allosteric site and alter enzyme activity, feedback inhibition: substance temporarily binds to allosteric site and regulates rate of enzymatic activity

what do detecting enzyme activity inhibitors do

can help ID bacteria, detect physical change in substrate, measure substrate before and after, indicate appearance of new product

what are some of staphylococcus aureus enzymes

hyaluronidase, staphylokinases, penicillinase

what does hyaluronidase do

promotes spreading of S. aureus

what does staphylokinases do

dissolves blood clots

what does penicillinase

breaks down penicillin

what are some of S. aureus' toxins

hemolysins, leukocidins, enterotoxins, exfoliative toxin, TSST

where is S. aureus found

bedsheets, door knobs etc.

how many people carry S. aureus


what percentage of nosocomial infections is S. aureus responsible


what is MRSA

methicillin-resistant S. aureus

what is the hosts defense against S. aureus


how does beta hemolytic streptococci behave

completely digests RBC's, on blood agar it has a clear color

how does alpha hemolytic Streptococci behave

partial digestion of blood agar, has green color

where is Streptococci mitis present


where is Streptococci salivarius present


where is Streptococci sanguis present


where is Streptococci mutans present


what is the 3rd most common childhood disease in the U.S.

otitis media

what shape is neisseria

kidney bean

where are gram negative cocci found

mucous membranes of endotherms

how do you treat gonococcal opthalmia in babies

AgNO3 and Emycin

what is another term for tuberculosis


how long can it take for TB to respond to antibiotics

6 months- 2 years

what can pseudomonas produce

greenish pus

what causes otitis externa, swimmers ear


how do you get Brucella abortus

unpasteurized milk

who is most likely to contract Brucella abortus

farmers, vets, meat packers

where is Legionella pmeumophila found

air conditioners, humidifiers, vaporizers

what can carry Yersinia pestis

rat flea, rats, praire dogs, chipmunks

what morphology does syphilis have


how many stages does syphilis have


1. 9 days-3 months

2. 3 wks-6 months

3. 3 years- 30 years

what is the vector for epidemic Rickettsia


what is the vector for endemic rickettsia


what caused us to have to raise pastuerization temps

Coxiella burnettii

what is the 1 STS in the US

Chlamydia trachomatis

what 2 ailments do we treat babies eyes for when they are born

gonorrhea and chlamydia

which bacteria does lucinda like


what does geosmin do

gives soil its color

what is transduction

transfer of DNA from one cell to another by a virus

what is generalized transduction

transfers any bacteria gene in the lytic cycle

what is specialized transduction

transfers a specific gene in lysogeny

what is transformation

absorption of DNA from environment by an organism

which people contributed to the discovery to transformation

Fred Griffith: working on pneumonia vaccine and a virulent bacteria transfered genes to nonvirulent

Avery, MacLeod, McCarthy: DNA was transfer agent, scientists were sloe to accept this

which bacterias can carry out transformation

strep and bacillus

what is conjugation

requires cell to cell contact

are donor cells considered male or female

they are F+ and male, they have plasmid for pili production

are recipient cels considered male or female

they are F- and female, they have no plasmid and no pili

what is a high frequency donor

plasmid integrates into DNA, may transfer antibiotic resistance