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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When were the first eukaryotic cells on earth?
Approx 2 billion years ago
Eukaryotic organelles originated from prokaryotic cells trapped inside of them
T/F: Animals have no cell wall.
Characteristics of a cell wall
provide structure & shape
different chemically from prokaryotic cell walls.
Cytoplasmic Membrane
Bilayer of phospholipids with protein molecules embedded

Defines interior from exterior
Why is it important that the cytoplasmic membrane is selectively permeable?
Can't let everything in. What's the point of having a membrane.
The nucleus is the _________ _____ of the cell.
control center
Where is the nucleolus and what happens there?
In the nucleus and performs rRNA synthesis.
The chromatin in the nucleus is ________ and ________.
open and unwound
Protein Synthesizers
Some scattered in the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton.
Others associated with RER.
Composed of large and small subunits of ribonucleoprotein.
What is the cytoskeleton?
Provides structure, moving structures inside cell, and moving cell
Thin protein strands.
Some active in amoeboid motion.
Ex: Actin
Biggest of three filaments inside cell.
Long, hollow tubes.
Maintains shape & transports substances.
Macroscopic fungi
see with the naked eye
Microscopic fungi
Need a microscope to see.
Round oval shape
Unique mode of asexual reproduction
Long, threadlike cells
Some are dimorphic (2 shapes)
Fig 5.15
Fungal Nutrition:
like decaying matter
Fungi's general method of obtaining nutrition:
Penetrates the substrate
Secretes enzymes
Breaks down the enzymes into small molecules
the woven, intertwining mass of hyphae that makes up the body or colony of a mold. Single-cell strand
Vegetative hyphae (mycelia)
normal life cycle of fungus

Fig 5.18
Reproductive (fertile) hyphae
responsible for the production of spores. These spores are not as resistant as bacterial endospore.
Reproductive Strategies and Spore Formation of Fungi
-propagate by growth of hyphae or fragmentation (hyphae breaks off and keeps growing)
- 1' reproductive mode is production of spores (large diversity of spores)
Sexual spores of Fungi
Can be sexual or asexual. They have lots of options
One reason fungi specimens are hard to grow and identify is because:
they need to be isolated on special types of media
One common way to identify fungi
Usually use sexual spore-forming structures and spores
Other characteristics that contribute to identification of fungi
Hyphal type
Colony texture and pigmentation
Physiological characteristics
Genetic makeup
T/F: Fungi are not capable of photosynthesis.
They do not contain chlorophyl
Do fungi need a host to live?
NO, nearly all are free-living.
How do humans become infected with a pathogenic fungi?
Usually occurs through accidental contact of compromised immune system.
Other than infections, what are fungi involved in?
Allergies, poisoning, agricultural damage.
Benefits of fungi:
Decomposing organic matter and returning essential minerals to the soil

Helps plants absorb water and nutrients
Fungi is used in the production of:
Organic acids
Two major taxonomic categories of The Protists
Subkingdom Algae
Subkingdom Protozoa
General definition of Protists
Any unicellular or colonial organism that lacks true tissues
How many species of protozoa are there?
~ 65,000
Most are harmless, few are parasites
Form & Function of Protozoa
-most are single cells
-contain major organelles
-cytoplasm divided
-some ciliate and flagellates working like primitive nervous system
**no cell wall
Ectoplasm of protozoa
clear outer layer involved in locomotion, feeding, and protection

Endoplasm of protozoa
granular inner region housing the nucleus, mitochondria, and food and contractile vacuoles

Protozoa nutrition
-heterotrophic (don't photosynthsis)
-require food in complex organic form (take off chunks of stuff)
-parasitic species can live on fluids or tissues of hosts
Protozoa Habitat
Fresh and marine water
Styles of locomotion for protozoa
pseudopods, flagella, or cilia
Amoeboid motion
Can serve as feeding structures
From one to several
Some attached along the length of the cell by the undulating membrane
Mostly distributed over the entire surface of the cell
Form characteristic patterns
Life cycles of protozoa
Some exist only in trophozoite stage (active stage).

Others alternate between trophozoite and cyst (although not protozoa form cysts)
Reproduction of protozoa
-Ciliates participate in conjugation. -They just come up against each other, no pilis.
-Can do asexual, some do sexual.
What is classification of protozoa based on?
Method of Motility
Method of Reproduction
Stages in life cycle
Motility primarily by flagella
Single nucleus
Most form cysts and are free-living
Most are solitary
Asexual reproduction by fission (split)
Mostly uninucleate
Usually form cysts
Most free-living
Trophozoites mobile by cilia
Some have cilia in tufts for feeding and attachment
Most develop cysts
Show relatively advanced behavior (communication)
Majority are free-living and harmless
Complex life cycles
Important in transmission of infections
Entire group is parasitic
Protozoan Identification and Cultivation
Shape and size of cell
Number of nuclei
Can be cultivated on artificial media or in laboratory animals
Pathogenic Flagellates
neurological pathogens
ex: Chagas diseases
Infective Amoebas

Fourth most common protozoan infection in the world
AKA: amoebic dysentery
The Parasitic Helminths
Two major groups: Flatworms and Roundworms

Adults large enough to be seen with the naked eye
Often segmented
"good parasites"- they don't kill hosts
section of flatworm that is full of eggs
Unsegmented worms
General Worm Morphology
-Most organs are those of the reproductive tract.
-Fundamental digestive, excretory, nervous and muscular systems.
-Have thick cuticles- can withstand digestive acids.
Separate sexes
separated sexes or hermaphoditic
What is an intermediate (Secondary) host for worms?
Usually where larval development occurs. Example would be pigs before it gets to humans.
Helminth Classification and Identification
Degree of development of various organs
Presence of hooks, suckers, or other special structures
Mode of reproduction
Kinds of hosts
Appearance of eggs and larvae