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90 Cards in this Set

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A group of people working together in a structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals

Human resources

Managerial talent and labor

Financial resources

Capital investments to support ongoing and long-term operations

Physical resources

Raw materials; office and production facilities, and equiptment


a set of activities: planning and decision making, organizing, leading, and controlling


Using resources wisely and in a cost-effective way


making the right decisions and successfully implementing them


someone whose primary responsibility is to carry out the management process

4 phases of the Management Process

Planning & Decision Making, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling


Determining goals and a course of action


coordinating activities and resources


motivating and managing people


Monitoring and evaluating activities

3 levels of management

Top managers, Middle managers, First-line managers

Top Managers

a small group of executives who manage the overall organization. They create organization's goals, overall strategy, and operating policies

Middle Managers

Are primarily responsible for implementing the policies and plans of top managers. They also supervise and coordinate the activities of lower level managers

First-Line Managers

Supervise and coordinate the activities of operating employees

Kinds of Managers by Area

Marketing Managers, Financial Managers, Operations Managers, Human Resources Managers, Administrative Managers, Specialist Managers

Marketing Managers

Work in areas related to getting consumers and clients to buy the organization's products or services

Financial Managers

Deal primarily with an organization's financial resources- accounting, cash management, and investments

Human Resources Managers

are involved in human resource activities

Administrative Managers

are generally familiar with all functional areas of management and are not associated with any particular management specialty

Specialized Managers

hold specialized managerial positions (e.g., public relations managers) directly related to the needs of an organization

Roles of Management

Interpersonal Roles, Informational Roles, Managerial Roles, Decisional Roles

Interpersonal ROles

Figurehead, leader, and liasiion roles involve dealing with other people

Informational Roles

Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson roles involve the processing of information

Decisional Roles

Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator are managerial roles primarily related to decision making

Fundamental Management Skills

Technical, Interpersonal, Diagnostic, Decision Making, Time Management, Communication, Conceptual


can accomplish or understand the specific kind of work being done in an organization


can communicate with, understand, and motivate both individuals in a group


can think in the abstract


Can visualize the appropriate response to a situation


can convey ideas and information effectively to others and to receive the same effectively from others


can recognize and define problems and opportunities and then to select an appropriate course of action to solve problems and capitalize on opportunities


can prioritize work, to work efficiently, and to delegate appropriately

Ch 2. Slide 5.

Management in Antique

Ch 2. Slide 12.

Gantt's Chart

Classical Management Perspectives

Scientific Management and Administrative Management

Scientific Management

Concerned with improving the performance of individual workers (i.e., efficiency)

Administrative Management

A theory that focuses on managing the total organization

Frederick Taylor

- S (1850-1910)

- Father of Scientific Management

- eliminated "soldering (beating the system)

- results were higher product quality and quantity

The Gilbreth's

- S (1870-1950)

- reduced the number of movements in brick laying resulting in 200% output

Henry Gant

- S (1860-1920)

- was an early associate of Fredrick Taylor

- created the Gantt Chart to improve working efficiency through planning and scheduling

Harrington Emerson

- (1840-1930)

- Advocated job specialization in both managerial and operating jobs

Henri Fayol

- A (1840-1925)

- wrote "General and Industrial Management

- Helped to systematize the practices of management

- first to identify the 4 specific management functions

Lyndall Urwick

- A (1890-1980)

- focused on synthesizing and integrating the work of other classical management theorists

Max Weber

- A (1860-1920)

- His theory of bureaucracy posits a rational set of guidelines for structuring organizations

Chester Barnard

- A (1890-1960)

- Wrote "The Functions of the Executive"

- Propsed a theory of the acceptance for authority (by subordinates) as the source of power and influence for managers

Behavioral Management

- Emphasized individual attitudes and behaviors, and group processes

- Recognized the importance of behavioral processes in the workplace

Hugo Münsterberg

- (1860-1920)

- A German psychologist, considered the father of industrial psychology

- wrote "Psychology and Industrial Efficiency"

- a book that included the practice of applying psychological concepts to industrial settings

The Hawthorne Studies

- Conducted by Mayo at Western Electric

- Intended as a group study of the effects of a piecework incentive plan on production workers

- a group study of the effects of a piecework incentive plan on production (informal)

- interview program

- Human Relations Movement came from this

Abraham Maslow

- (1910-1970)

- advanced a needs theory that employees are motivated by a hierarchy of needs they seek to satisfy

Douglas McGregor

- (1910-1960)

- Proposed Theory X and Theory Y concepts of managerial beliefs about people and work

Maslow's Theory of Needs (lowest to highest)

Physiological, Security, Social Needs, Esteem needs, Self-actualizing needs

Ludwig Von Bertalanffy

- (1900-1972)

- Created a systems perspective that is interrelated set of elements functioning as a whole

Open system

an organization that interacts with its external environment

Closed system

An organization that does not interact with its environment


the important of this is due to their interdependence on each other within the organization


subsystems in an organization working together as one system


A normal process in which an organizational system declines due to its failing to adjust to change in its environment

Universal Perspective

- attempts to identify the "one best way" to manage organizations

- includes all organizational approaches

Contingency Perspective

- suggests that each organization is unique

- appropriate behavior depends on the situation in the organization

Modern Management Today

- an integrating framework

- involves recognizing the current systems, subsystems, environmental influences, and situational nature or management

General environment

- everything outside an organization's boundaries - economic, legal, political, socio-cultural, international, and technical forces

Task environment

- specific groups and organizations that affect the firm

Internal Environment

conditions and forces present and at work within an organization (e.g. owners, BOD, Employees, Organization culture, PPE)

The General Environment

The set of broad dimensions and forces in an organization's surroundings that create its overall context

5 External dimensions

Economic, Technological, Sociocultural, Political-legal, and International dimensions

Economic Dimensions

- Interest rates (discount rate .75% June 2013)

- Inflation (1.4% June 2013)

- Unemployment (7.6% May 2013, 9.1% Mississippi May 2013-Ranked 49th)

- Economic Growth (GDP 1.8% in 1st quarter)

Technological Dimension

Effects of changes in technology that effect design, distribution, and production

Sociocultural Dimension

values, morels, and norms of behavior of the society in which the organization functions

Political-Legal Dimension

- Effects of changing laws and regulations

- Defines what companies can and cannot do

- Pro- or antibusiness sentiment

- Political stability on planning

International dimension

-effects of increased global markets

e.g. reduced trade barriers (NAFTA),

Improved and reliable global communications, global labor markets

5 Dimensions of the Task Environment

Competitors, Customers, Suppliers, Regulators, Strategic Partners


- Burger King

- Wendy's

- Subway

- Dairy Queen


-Food and Drug Administration

- Securities and Exchange commissions

- Environmental protection agencies

Strategic Partners

- Walmart

- Disney

- Foreign Partners


- Coca-Cola

- Wholesale food processors

- Packaging manufacturers


-Individual and consumers

- Institutional consumers

5 Internal Environment stakeholders

Owners, Board of directors, Employees, Physical work environment, and culture

Organizational Culture

The set of internal values, beliefs, behaviors, customs, and attitudes that determines the "feel" of the organization

4 determinantes of Organization Culture

Organization's founder, Organization's successes, Shared experiences, Symbols stories hero's slogans ceremonies

2 ways the environment affects organizations

Environmental Change & Environmental Complexity


a driving force that influences organizational decisions

Environmental Turbulence

Unexpected changes and upheavals in the environment of an organization

Porter's Five Competitive Forces

Threat of new entrants, competitive rivalry, substitute products, Power of buyers, and Power of Suppliers

Ways Organizations Respond to Environments

Information Management, Strategic Response, Top Management's strategic response, Mergers Acquisition Alliances, Organizational Design and Flexibility

Information Management

- Boundary spanners- individuals who interact with outside constituencies (they improve information gathering and provide information)

- Environmental Scanning

Strategic Response

- Maintaining the status quo, altering the current strategy, or adopting a new strategy.

- top management

Mergers, Acquisitions, Alliances

Firms combine, purchase, or form new venture partnership or alliances