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87 Cards in this Set

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Sommer worked as a consultant for the government. He wanted to merge/consolidate the various school districts in Nebraska. What was the #1 issue?
merging the culture! (Ex: whose mascot, color, chant should be chosen)
In terms of failed merger, 85%+ fail to do so because of ____
culture (changes in policies, attitudes, dress, etc.)
Sommer's Life
-Went to Cal (all of father's side went to); first person on mother's side to graduate college; worked in Student Affairs, Student Housing, Greek Life; SDSU for Master's; 12 Years at University of Nebraska; 7 years at Pepperdine; did water polo and was a lifeguard
IMPORTANT: two outcomes for OB
performance: others describe, we want to know HOW THEY DO; attitude: how people feel (main reason people leave jobs is due to unhappiness with bosses)
Sommer had a story about working in the electric industry. 99.8% of country was covered with electricity, and during this time, every plant played by the same rules (cost, policies, procedures, etc.) What were the only differences?
management: good vs bad mangers. Difference in productivity was 5% (this example illustrates the course's focus on how people PERFORM)
OB Trilogy
1) understanding - how concepts we talk about help us understand why people do what they do
2) control - how to control behavior; this is needed for performance + profit + production
3) prediction - analyzing the data; predict what is likely to happen
What is the primary purpose of an organization?
NOT to make a profit; it is to produce a good or service. You want to do it in a way that is unique, better, different (why should I buy it from you?)
There is no such thing as a ____ problem. Instead?
communication problem

it's actually a symptom of an organizational dysfunction
EX: cultural differences, coordination, personality, information exchange
IMPORTANT: the source of satisfaction at work is typically ____
work itself: what people are doing; people like it when their work makes a difference
source of dissatisfaction at work is the __
boss
____ give us a snapshot of where people are at. They help us pinpoint the question and intervention. They help us find out where people are coming from (someone who does this well has a high EI)
attitudes
Attitudes are based on ____. Lead to ____, which leads to ____
information; emotional reaction; behavioral intent
___ looks at the depth of understanding that people have about a concept
Bloom's Learning Hierarchy
Describe Bloom's Learning Hierarchy
Level One: knowledge - knowing stuff, memorizing and spitting out facts on a test. (EX: "job satisfaction means......")

Level Two: comprehension, explain, grasp meaning of the material (EX: "reasons that an employee would be satisfied with a job include.......")

Level Three: application, using acquired knowledge and comprehension to be utilized in new situations (EX: "when I was an intern at Broadcom, I loved my job there because......")
5 reasons for job satisfaction
1) boss; 2) work intself; 3) pay (direct compensation and indirect benefits); 4) advancement; 5) co-workers
What did Sommer's class video "Paperchase" teach us?
1) there is never a right answer. There is an appropriate answer

2) importance of learning how to think
Three components to wisdom
1) analysis - can you take knowledge and solve a problem and make decisions?

2) integration - are you able to to take a look at pieces of a puzzle and put it together? (synthesis - does one thing affect another)

3) evaluation - judging the value of the material; ** analysis, integration, and evaluation are part of Bloom's Learning Hierarchy (go past level 3)
Who is Sommer's son
Eli (he is 8 years old and turned that age on 4-8-2013)
Purpose of the University of Caliornia?
teaching us HOW TO THINK (relates to Paperchase)

also relates to analysis, synthesis, evaluation - putting stuff into practice
Perfection Information
asks: can you know all the possible options? can you know all aspects of all options? can you know all possible outcomes and implications?

EX: when you apply to schools, did you think of applying out-of-state? did you know about the enrollment difficulties at UCI? did you evaluate UCI's ability to deliver a job?

*** Pierce says people CANNOT come up with a perfect answer***
The way people get frozen by their thirst for perfection and continue to look for more data. The way people pause to pull the trigger because of their fear of making a mistake is known as ____
Paralysis Analysis (on midterm)
Herbert Simon on Decision Making:
we don't try to make perfect decisions because we can't see it all

EX: from a physiological standpoint - if Sommer didn't tell us to notice his tie, we wouldn't remember it when we finished class
Herbert Simon says that all decisions at their base level are ___
subjective: we pick our variables on emotional preferences

EX: when Sommer's brother applied for college, he chose UCSD over Northwestern despite the rankings because he didn't want to be that far from home
We pick our variables on emotional preferences. This is known as ___
bounded rationality
We search until we find the first good enough decisions. Picking the optimal value out of a feasible set. This is known as ____
satisficing (think satisfy + sacrifice)
Implications of satisficing:
Marginal utility declines as time progresses so we have to make a decision (cost of continuing to search exceeds benefits)

Opportunity cost: taking longer can make current opportunities go away - there is a tradeoff
Herbert Simon's graph is the first short answer question on the test:
:(
What are the implications of the statement, "check emotions at the door"
We should separate personal and professional life; we put on work hat and take care of business. Pierce asserts that this is NOT possible because what happens at home and work affect each other. He says it's important to recognize emotion.

**regardless, you should still get work done**
Good managers can take ___ into account
Emotion: people have different personalities and differences in thinking. The idea is to be able to manage how each person treats each other. The issue isn't that you're different. The issue is what we can do about it.
positive affectivity
???
negative affectivity
???
clueless
???
cheeseburger?
???
What tie was Sommer wearing for lecture 3?
blue/red tie; glows in the dark; parsley leaves
What is the secret word?
fish
world-view
schema
People who come in (high fliers) and make everyone look bad). Employees who come in hoping to be a future partner of a company.
A players
People who focus more on balance (personal relationships, family, friends, work/life balance)
B players
Emotional Intelligence
1) How well you know yourself (schema)
2) how well you can regulate your emotions
3) how socially aware you are (empathize and understand others' feelings, your ability to work in a team); EX: if we were ambitious, we would want to project that on others. But what if there was a person who wants a work/life balance instead? Player A vs. Player B

EX: Sommer was reffing soccer, and the coach was getting hostile. Sommer recognized that he was blowing up and getting mad.
Explain attitudes in situations
Strong situation: if it's a strong situation, there is nothing much you can do about it, despite your attitudes

Weak situation: if it's a weak situation, it isn't as restricted and your attitudes can have a factor in intentions. People have more autonomy and discretion
#1 characteristic of successful leaders is ___
integrity
#1 violation for hating bosses is ___
distrust
Implications of trust:
If there is trust, under conditions of risk, you will be confident that the other person will act in your best interest. (for distrust, under conditions of risk/uncertainty, you don't know if the other person will help you or will exploit you)
putting mechanisms in place so that the cost of trust violation exceeds gain
deterrence/calculative trust
circles back into integrity - you know the person, so you can count on him or her (same for distrust)
reputational/ knowledge-based trust
values/identification
idea of a deep mutual understanding/respect. People may not have values that are the same, but each person respects how the other got there

EX: if a person is absent, you're mindful/ respectful of their considerations. they know how each other thinks
absenteeism
this is a result of no trust; the person becomes absent (physically/mentally); results in a loss of productivity

EX: results in more frequent "sick leaves" -> company would likely have to to pay for more sick leaves
Three types of turnover costs
1) separation (time/money it takes to get a person to leave)
EX: Hooter's girl who got less physically attractive due to an accident got less and less hours

2) replacement costs
EX: interviews, job posting, HR efforts

3) training costs
EX: from a time a person started, it took the person 15 months to be proficient (research)
attitude surveys
1) feedback issue: organizations don't give sufficient information that tell people how they're doing

2) social support: do you have a friend at work? someone you can reply on?

3) justice: fairness
emotional labor
what kind of energy does it take you to put on a good face? Energy expenditure needed to fit demands of a job

EX: flight attendants who smile and greet guests
emotional priming
can you manage to get people motivated?

EX: war movie about the general who gets people to be excited to die
contagion
emotion is contagious -> you're in a group and someone brings everyone down. You want to spot positive emotions and have that spread
Takeaway of the Christensen Article
Teaching people how to think

EX: How do you define success? Through happiness? Don't say meet life goals, make an impact. You want specific statements. Also, are you living your values??

EX: you say family is important, but you have 90 hrs/week working

"Just this once:" it's easy to comprimise -> this leads to dissatisfaction; there's some areas in life where it's black and white
voting vs. consensus
voting = comprimising; consensus = develop agreement that everyone decides on (it focuses on mutual interest)
tolerance for ambiguity
deals with ability, capacity, and preference under ambiguity and uncertainty; how long are you able to withstand survival
Novelty
ability to handle new people/ environments. How tolerant are you of new, unfamiliar information or situations?
Novelty's Low/High Score
Low Score (4): traditionalist -> a person with a set routine

High Score (28): thrill seeker -> a person that likes an environment that is new, changing, and different
central tendancy response bias
"hiding in the middle:" people stray from being extremists and therefore go in the middle
complexity
the "juggling" scale -> how do you process activities? how do you approach your work? How tolerant are you of multiple unrelated information?
Complexity's Low/High Score
Low Score (9): sequential/linear -> take processes one at a time (step by step)

High Score (63): parallel processing -> ability to handle multiple things
EX: when you're cleaning your house, you turn on the dishwater, let it run, and then go to the laundry, let it run, etc.
Parallel processing is NOT ___
multitasking (Sommer says multi-tasking is BS. It does not exist. Research shows we cannot devote adequate attention/resources to multiple things at once)

EX: cognitive attention to driving is distracted by talking
insolubility
extent to which you are tolerant of problems that are very difficult to solve because alternative solutions are not evident or information is not available
insolubility: low/high score
Low Score: "black & white"

High Score: philosophers -> "there is no right answer," or "it depends"
strong situations
help people understand what's going to work, what's expected. As a leader, you enforce the culture; EX: for cultural changes, you might want ot look outside
culture
think: "why are we eating turkey"
EX: Kodak would always use the same protocol as a result of a freak accident in the past 20 years ago related to silver nitrate. "Why are we still using this same procedure?"
engagement
psychological attachment/connection; your investment
We want to build a culture with ___
engagement (when people are engaged, we see benefits)
4 components of engagement
1) meaning: to what extent are your personal values aligned with values of organization
2) competence: human drive/mastery to be good
3) choice: you're allowed behavioral discretion
4) impact: making a difference
meaning
to what extent are your personal values aligned with values of organization: focus more on "fit" than "performance." Goals, processes, structures, and culture are thought to determine the kinds of people who are attracted to, selected by, and stay in the organization. (attraction, selection, attrition model)

EX: are you asked to violate your values?
EX: Freedman article -> marine core values of honor, duty, and country. People who join do it for these values; their values match
competence
human drive/mastery to be good: To what extent are you under-utilized? Does the organization provide training for new skills? Do it provide challenges for you? If not, you lose engagement because you can do the minimum
choice
idea of volition/choice: you're allowed behavioral discretion
EX: you're supposed to disobey an illegal order (military); you ask questions if something doesn't seem right, and you're expected to speak up
impact
making a difference
EX: defending freedom, making world safe for democracy (marine article)
EX: as a marine, you have the impact of passing out food, nation building, setting up sewer systems, building school activities
artifacts
signs of culture; they represent the underlying organizational values
Types of artifacts
heroes: founder, significant role players
legends: emphasis on what happened, what someone did (name is not important)
rituals: mark transitions (hell week: pledge-> active); statements that define what's important
symbols: Peter the Anteater
language: knowing the jargon
norms: behavioral expectations (EX: football Saturdays, you wear black and red)
Sommer described artifacts at Cal. What did he describe an artifact of Cal by something he was wearing?
Bear tie
___ = walk; ____= talk
artifacts; values
Cirque Du Soleil
-an organization that has done fabulously; "3-4 hours to maybe get a ticket," "how fortunate am I to work for this company"

value = social responsibility; artifacts: Guy, person who burns, person who is put on the show from the streets
Types of Organizational Values
1) aspirational 2) permission to play 3) accidental 4) core
aspirational
what are you striving for? -strive to be like the heroes you're talking about
"permission to play"
your "anti:" the minimum expectation to be in the game

EX: integrity is a minimum requirement; Note: people always say "we strive to have good integrity," or "ISO certified, lead certification." These statements seem aspirational, but they are simply what is expected
accidental
what you discover along the way -> unexpected change. Organization needs soul-searching to figure out who it is
core
what is your distinctive competency in terms of culture? what makes you better, different, and unique? Who we are, and who we're not

EX: Deloitte vs. KPMG (both public accounting firms, but they are extremely different)

EX: J&J emphasizes on mindfulness to help employees with family responsibilities. And they WALK THE WALK
cultural strength
how do you know you have a strong culture?
When it is:
1) widely shared - when asked a cultural questions, answers will be commonly shared, with consistent artifacts brought up

2) deeply held - the values are strongly invested
Values that become obsessive and narrow-minded lead to ___
a cult
power distance
example of cultural differences -
every society has social stratification - power distance discusses extent they are formalized, accepted, and recognized
Low Power Distance: it's not as recognized, but there are signals and you're expected to know
EX: at a bar, you put down the keys to show what car you drive.
specific holistic
example of cultural differences-
deals with the way we view what we do in our life
Specified oriented culture: different types of lives don't cross paths (your buddies, work, spiritual friends, etc. are all separated)
Holistic culture: not separated - it all happens in the same circle
EX: I need to like you personally in order for you sign the contract. No matter how professional you are, I need to like you off the job to cooperate and work with you.
EX: Bill Clinton - his private life (affair) vs. his public life as president
intensity norms
high intensity (must do) vs. low intensity (should do)
EX: trust/respect in a team is high intensity, whereas attendance to a group meeting is low intensity