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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does HBOT affect white blood cells?
- gives them an increased ability to fight infection (HBO is lethal to anaerobic microorganisms)
What is neovascularization?
- formation of new capillary bed in poorly perfused tissue (promoted by HBOT)
What are the indications for HBOT?
- air embolism
- CO poisoning
What is a monoplace chamber?
- small vessel that holds one patient, usually pressurized w/ O2
What are the characteristics of a multiplace chamber?
- pressurized w/ room air
- patient breathes O2 via mask or hood
- allows healthcare providers to be in the chamber w/ patient
What is an absolute contraindication for HBOT?
- an untreated pneumothorax that occurs during therapy
What are some contraindications for HBOT?
- upper-respiratory infection
- patients w/ air trapping
- patients unable to equalized pressure in middle ear (may need tympanotomy tubes before therapy)
- patients w/ chronic hypercarbia (may remove hypoxic drive)
How does nitric oxide affect the vessels?
- improves blood flow to the lung
- reduces shunting
- improves oxygenation
- decreases pulmonary vascular resistance
What are O2 analyzers used for?
- to analyze high flow systems; low flow systems cannot be analyzed
- used in measuring FIO2 in mechanical ventilation
When might a patient not receive the FIO2 measured by an O2 analyzer?
- if flow is inadequate
What does blue silica do? pink silica?
- dries the gas
- saturates/adds moisture to gas
How should O2 analyzers be calibrated?
- if measuring a value less than 60%, then calibrate to 21% last
- if measuring a value greater than 60%, then calibrate to 100% O2 last
- calibrate at least once per shift
What are some possible sources for an error reading on an oxygen analyzer?
- weak batteries
- torn, wet, or leaky membranes
- positive pressure (PEEP or IPPB)
- Altitude
What does the polarographic electrode (ABG machine) measure?
- O2
What does the Severinghouse electrode (ABG machine) measure?
- CO2
What does the Sanz electrode (ABG machine) measure?
- pH
What parameters do physical (paramagnetic) & electrochemical (polarographic/galvanic cell) O2 analyzers measure?
- Partial Pressures
What parameter does an electrical (thermal conduction) O2 analyzer measure?
- O2 concentration
What does a pulse oximeter measure?
- saturation of the hemoglobin in arterial blood (not always O2)
How does a pulse oximeter work?
- uses red & infrared light to detect changes in color of blood caused by binding of the hemoglobin
What sites can pulse oximeters be used on?
- fingers, toes, & ear lobes
What does co-oximetry measure?
- abnormal hemoglobin variants
- can determine the percentage of oxygenated Hemoglobin compared to the total amount of hemoglobin (Hb), including carboxyhemoglobin (carboxy-Hb), Methemoglobin (met-Hb), oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), and reduced Hb
What are the characteristics of a transcutaneous monitor?
- provides continuous SPO2 monitoring
- O2 molecules diffuse through skin and through the membrane of the sensor
- skin is heated to 42 C to facilitate diffusion
- placed on flat surface of chest & abdomen
- used mostly in infants
- used to assess blood flow changes in HBOT
What is the "magic box"?
- way to find the air:oxygen ratio of an entrainment system
- the answer represents the amount or air that is entrained to every 1 Liter of O2
- add ratios together, multiply by literflow= total output of device