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79 Cards in this Set

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Function of the circulatory system
Bring nutrients and oxygen
Maintain body temperature
Transport hormones to various locations in the body
Range for blood pressure
120 to 80 mmHg
Average blood pressure
100 mmHg
Contraction
Systole
What does the units mmHg really mean?
How much a column of mercury would raise with the force.
Relaxation
Diastole
Blood pressure reading
systolic/diastolic
Compose arteries
Smooth muscle
Connective tissue
Compose the lumen of all blood vessels
Epithelial cells know as endothelial cells
Arteriosclerosis
Damage to endothelial cells by arterial pressure or absrasive substances in the blood
Arterioles
Branching of arteries

Major area of resistance in the cardiovascular system
Pressure of blood in capillaries
25 mmHg
Helps regulate the flow of blood to the capillary bed
Smooth muscle known as precapillary sphincter
Varicose vein
Increase in pressure in the veins due malfunctioning of valves that normally prevent blood from flowing backwards are damaged,
Valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
Right atrioventricular valve or tricuspid
Valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
Left atrioventricular valve or mitral or bicuspid valve
Valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
Aortic valve
"lub" sound
Closing of the atrioventricular valve
"dub" sound
Closing of the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve
Point of origin for the electric impulse that propagates throughout the heart
Sinoatrial node
Location of sinoatrial node
Junction of superior vena cava and the right atrium
Electrical impulses from sinoatrial node spread here first
Atrioventricular node
Causes ventricles to contract and eject blood into the pulmonary and systemic system
bundle of His
How and where is blood pressure monitored
Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors located in the aortic and carotid arteries
Area in the brain stem that responds to low pressure alerts from baroreceptors
Medulla
Cardiac output
Heart rate times the stroke volume
Factors influencing the cardiac output
Diameter of blood vessels
Amount of blood returning to the heart
Heart rate and force of ventricular contraction
Relationship established by Poisuille's law
Flow is proportional to the change pressure between two ends of a tube and the radius^4 of the tube, and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid and length of the tube
Osmol
One mole of a molecule that does not ionize
Osmotic pressure
Amount of pressure (due to build up of water) that stopped osmosis
Function of lymphatic system
Collect excess fluid that leaks into the interstitial space from capillaries return it by the way of the vena cava back to the circulatory system
Edema
Increase in the interstitial fluid due to the block of lymph flow through the lymphatic system
Why is Vitamin K essential for clotting?
It's required by a carboxylase enzyme that forms prothrombin.
Function of thrombin
Convert fibrinogen into fibrin, which forms the blood clot in the vicinity of the damaged area
Serine protease that hydrolyzes specific regions in the fibrin clot in order to dissolve it into smaller peptide fragments
Plasmin
Ways of reaching vitamin K deficiency?
Failure to absorb lipids
Overuse of antibiotics that destroy gut flora
Caused by Vitamin K defeciency cause
Bleeding disorders
Dicoumarol
Vitamin K antagonist that results in an abnormal prothrombin that cannot bind Ca

Inspired production of Warfarin, which is also a Vitamin K antagonist used for rat poisoning
Passage of air
nose mouth - pharynx - larynx - trachea - 2 tubular passage called the bronchi
Line the lumen of epithelial cells and continually beat mucus toward the pharynx
Cilia
What are the walls of the repiratory tracks made of?
Smooth muscle
What kind of nerve fibers innervate the bronchioles of the lungs?
Parasympathetic nerves which travel in the vagus nerve
What is the pressure in the alveoli during inspiration?
Subatmospheric so that air rushes down its gradient from outside to the lower pressure in the lungs?
What's responsible for the subatmospheric pressure levels in the lungs?
Contraction of diaphragm, rib cage contraction, enlargement of the thoracic cage, expansion of the lungs
Encases lungs
Pleura (visceral covers the lungs, while parietal asdheres to the diaphragm.)
How can oxygen travel in the blood?
1) Being dissolved in the blood itself
2) Being bound to transport protein in the red blood cells

Note: Oxygen is rather is insoluble in blood, so 98 % is carried via the later.
What would happen hemoglobin dissociation curve under acidic conditions? What other conditions have the same affect?
The curve shifts down and to the right.

Increase in temp, and increase in BPG concentration.
How can CO2 travel in the the blood?
1) Dissolving in the plasma and red blood cells
2) Binding to a specific site on the hemoglobin molecule
3) In the form of bicarbonate

Note that the majority is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate.
Enzyme responsible for turning CO2 into bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Carbonic anhydrase
Coordinates rhythm for breathing
Medulla and pons in the brainstem
How and where is the oxygen concentration sensed?
Chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries and the arch of the aorta
Why is there a low average velocity in the capillaries?
The total cross sectional area of all the capillaries is very larger, the largest of all types of vessels in the cardiovascular system.
What's the relationship between the resistance of a vessel and the radius?
Resistance varies inversely with the radius to the work of four.
What is structurally different between veins and arteries?
Only veins contain one way valves that prevent the back flow of blood.
What is structurally similar between veins and arteries?
Both have a layer of endothelial cells, a layer of elastic tissue, and a layer of smooth muscle.
How does frequency of change in arterial pressure and venous pressure compare?
The arterial pressure changes significantly. It is very high coming out the aorta, but become smaller and smaller toward the capillaries.
Where does blood experience the highest velocity?
As it's being ejected from the left ventricle.
Where is velocity of blood the slowest?
Capillaries
Measures the turbulent flow or laminar flow of blood
Reynolds number
What is distenisbility?
Increase in volume due increase in pressure.

Highest in vein, then pulmonary arteries, and lastly systemic arteries.
Boyles Law
As volume increase, pressure decreases
In which direction does Ca gradient go?
Into the cell
Major parasymapthetic fiber
Vagus nerve
How long do RBC live?
120 days
Life span of a water soluble vitamin?
Short, gets secreted by the kidney
Cardiac Output
Rate at which blood leaves either ventricles.
Equation of C.O
Heart Rate * Stroke Volume
Relationship between B.P and C.O
C.O X Resistance
Arrhythymia
Irregular heat or having an irregular rhythm.
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricles contracting in an unsynchronized manner, leading to unproductive twitching.
Responsible for conduction through the interventricular septum, and break in to branches forming Purkinje fiber
bundle of His
What are the benefits of being a marathon runner to the heart?
Greater stroke volume, smaller heart rate required to maintain the same cardiac output.
Chelation
formation or presence of two or more separate coordinate bonds between a polydentate (multiple bonded) ligand and a single central atom.
Number of membranes in RBCs
They have only the plasma membrane. They have no organelles. Therefore, there's no mitochondria, and energy production happens via glycolysis in the cytoplasm.
Major source of Vitamin K
Leafy green vegetables.
Why do clots need to be limited?
They can break free from blood vessels and wreak havoc within the circulatory system.
How can clots be limited?
Inhibitors of serine proteases
Dilution of blood with fresh blood
Removal of clot intermediates by transport to the liver.
What is turbulent flow? What causes it? What increases it?
Blood flow which is not flowing in a steady stream through blood vessels, and creates eddy currents.

They are formed blood passing over a rough surface.

It increases with increasing in velocity and the diameter of the vessel and decreases with viscosity of the blood.