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### 28 Cards in this Set

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 Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 1. need no material medium to propagate 2. Speed of EM wave through vacuum: 3x10^8 m/s 3. Visible wavelength: 4x10-7m to 7x10^-7m Photons quantized energy E=hf=h(c/l) h=planck;s constant Wave-particel duality EM wave travels like a wave, but interacts w/ matter like a particle Angle of Reflection Angle measured from incidence line Angle of Refraction Angle that a refracted ray makes w/ the line thats perpend. to the plane of interface between the two media. Index of refraction n=c/v How index of refraction works If a medium has a lower index of refraction from incident medium, the ray bends away from the normal (vice versa) Critical Angle Angle at which Total Internal Reflection happens; Sin of Crit Angle= n2/n1 where n1>n2 Diffraction redistrubution of a wave's intensity when an obstruction is presented before an object (spreads out when it hits a hole) Polarization light whose direction is restricted to one plane (vibrate in a single plane) Dispersion spreading out of the while light due to variations of wave speed caused by different frequencies Four optics questions 1. where is the image found? 2. is the image upright or inverted? 3. is the image real or virtual? 4. how much is the object magnified by? Real image light actually focuses at the position of the image Virtual image light rays don't focus at the apparent location of the image When magnification is "+", then the image is upright When magnification is "-", then the image is inverted on a concave mirror, focal length is positive on a convex mirror, focal length is negative t/f the object length is always positive t Comparing Len optics to mirror optics for a lens: 1. equations are the same as for mirrors 2. focal point sign conventions are switched 3. real images form on the opposite side (virtual images form on the same side) Equation for maxima in dispersion d sin (theta)=m(wavelength) d= distance between slits m= is the "n-th" maxima Equation for minima in dispersion d sin (theta)=(m+0.5)(wavelength) d= distance between slits m= is the "n-th" minima In lenses, when the image distance is negative, the image is: virtual and upright In lenses, when the image distance is positive, the image is: real and inverted t/f focal point distance is always negative for converging lenses f focal point distance is always negative for diverging lenses As an object distance becomes greater than f, the image will: decrease in distance and become virtual As a wave travels from one medium to another, what property does not change? Frequency The speed of a wave in a given medium is determined by what? the type of the wave and the characteristics of the medium NOT the frequency